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Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Forestry Technology and Lumbering

Forestry Technology and Lumbering   Reference library

Thomas R. Cox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...change over the years. Continental Europe provided much of the initial technology used in North America. Resistance to labor-saving innovations out of fear of job loss had kept English production simple and labor intensive; tools were inefficient, having been developed for agrarian use, not lumbering. Living under labor-short conditions, Americans drew upon Dutch, German, Polish, Danish, and Scandinavian sources for better means of production. Booms for collecting and holding logs, water-powered reciprocal saws, and the rafting of logs and lumber all had...

Birth Control and Family Planning

Birth Control and Family Planning   Reference library

Susan Hanket Brandt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...a pregnancy prior to “quickening,” the perception of fetal movements in the second trimester of pregnancy. In the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, most Euro-Americans viewed large families positively because children provided an economic safety net and laborers in an agrarian and artisanal economy. However, fertility rates began to decline in free populations in the late eighteenth century. Starting with the urban middle classes, women redefined the American Revolutionary rhetoric of equality, rationality, and self-control and invented a new...

Food Processing

Food Processing   Reference library

Gabriella M. Petrick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1940. DuPuis, E. Melanie . Nature’s Perfect Food: How Milk Became America’s Drink . New York: New York University Press, 2002. Goodwin, Lorine Swainston . The Pure Food, Drink, and Drug Crusaders, 1879–1914 . Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 1999. Guthman, Julie . Agrarian Dreams: The Paradox of Organic Farming in California . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Hamilton, Shane . Trucking Country: The Road to America’s Wal-Mart Economy . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008. Horowitz, Roger . Putting Meat on the American...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Manufacturing In one of the most fundamental feedbacks in the modern world, new technological knowledge had powerful economic outcomes that in turn fostered technological change. Whole economies changed in the process. Between 1790 and 1929 , the largely agrarian economy of the United States evolved to become the world’s leading industrial power. Manufacturing led the way, as the handicrafts employing a few percent of the labor force in 1790 gave way to a factory-dominated sector employing a quarter of the labor force and affecting the whole...

extended family

extended family  

A multigenerational group of people related by blood and marriage, often comprising an identifiable head (a patriarch or matriarch), their offspring and spouses, and the children of this second ...
industrialization

industrialization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...industrialization The process of change from an agrarian to an industrial economy that uses machines to generate energy, manufacture and transport goods, and move people speedily between their dwellings, workplaces, and recreational settings. These processes usually cause environmental destruction and pollution of air, water, and land with the waste products of industrial development. ...

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Industrial Revolution The transition from an agrarian economy to an economy based on the use of coal-fired machinery to manufacture an increasingly wide range of goods. The process began in Britain in the 18th century after the invention of the steam engine. It progressed rapidly throughout the 19th century and extended to the rest of western Europe, the United States, and Japan, then to the former Soviet Union. A wave of modernizing industrialization occurred in India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, Thailand, China, and some oil-rich nations in the late-...

extended family

extended family   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...their offspring and spouses, and the children of this second generation; often there are additional relations, cousins, second cousins, etc., all of whom recognize their kinship and possess a high degree of family solidarity. Extended families were the norm in pastoral and agrarian societies but have often broken down into nuclear families (two generations; i.e., marital partners and their children) in industrial societies, where there is usually higher geographical mobility. Extended families transmit traditions about infant and child care, provide...

geriatric medicine

geriatric medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,706 words

...numbers and proportions of older people are increasing in both the developed and developing world. Over half of the world's population of people aged over 65 now lives in developing countries, where they may face particularly difficult circumstances. During economic development, agrarian cultures break down and traditional forms of family support for old people may be disrupted by industrialization, migration of young families to urban centers, and changes in cultural values. Economic development rarely provides the services necessary to replace the traditional...

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