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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Black, Hugo

Black, Hugo   Reference library

Jeffrey D. Hockett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
294 words

...that the First Amendment protects virtually all forms of speech and press, including obscenity, libel, and seditious utterances, which must be protected from government censorship. This constitutional absolutism was rooted in his affinity for Populism, the nineteenth-century agrarian movement (especially strong in Alabama ) that emphasized the need to combat government’s tendency to serve powerful interests at the expense of the less fortunate. [ See also Bill of Rights ; Brown v. Board of Education ; Civil Liberties ; Japanese American Internment ; ...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings   Reference library

H. Wayne Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
323 words

... won the Democratic Party’s 1896 presidential nomination after delivering his electrifying Cross of Gold speech at the party convention in Chicago . The Populist Party also nominated him, and he ran on a platform endorsing free silver and other reforms. He personified the agrarian values of individualism, equality, and Protestant morality in an urban-industrial era of deepening class and ethnic divisions. His opposition to corporate power mirrored the spirit of discontent pulsing through the nation’s heartland, but he failed to rally the urban working...

American Farm Bureau Federation

American Farm Bureau Federation   Reference library

David E. Hamilton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
632 words

...by establishing successful insurance, cooperative marketing, and farm supply affiliates. The founders of the AFBF believed that farmers were at a disadvantage in the early twentieth century in a political system increasingly dominated by organized groups. Older forms of agrarian organization such as fraternal orders or third political parties, they argued, were ill suited to represent modern farm interests. The creation in 1914 of the Extension Service spurred the formation of a network of local and state farm associations that were often known as...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...in war and recession. Reinforcing fiscal responsibility, the Jeffersonian tradition reviled public debt as the anti-Republican harbinger of excessive federal power. High protective tariffs underwrote the longest surplus sequence in fiscal years (FY) 1866 – 1893 . Facing agrarian protest that duties should only have revenue-raising purposes, congressional Republicans expanded federal spending, notably on veterans’ pensions and internal improvements, to reduce the surplus. This practice peaked during the “Billion Dollar Congress” of 1889 – 1891 ....

Polk, James Knox

Polk, James Knox   Reference library

Wayne Cutler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
743 words

...tariff, immigration policy, and agrarianism versus the market revolution. As president, Polk pursued five major goals: Texas annexation (already approved by Congress), settlement of the Oregon boundary dispute with Britain , tariff reduction, establishment of an independent treasury, and the purchase of California . In pursuing Texas annexation, Polk first tried diplomacy. He offered to purchase Mexico ’s northern provinces, not from a belief in so-called Manifest Destiny but from a desire to preserve the agrarian republic. Each new generation of...

Shays’s Rebellion

Shays’s Rebellion   Reference library

Robert A. Gross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
482 words

...political order. [ See also Articles of Confederation ; Constitution ; Constitutional Convention of 1787 ; and Taxation . ] Bibliography Gross, Robert A., ed. In Debt to Shays: The Bicentennial of an Agrarian Rebellion . Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993. Szatmary, David P. Shays’ Rebellion: The Making of an Agrarian Insurrection . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980. Robert A....

Populist Era

Populist Era   Reference library

Wayne Flynt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,243 words

...processing, and marketing agricultural products. Threats to traditional folkways from industrialization, business consolidation, commercial agriculture, and the rise of urban-immigrant America spurred the agrarian protest spirit known as Populism. Some historians have seen Populism as a reactionary phenomenon, a last stand for agrarian values before the juggernaut of modernization. Richard Hofstadter , in his influential Age of Reform ( 1955 ), viewed the Populists as deluded reactionaries who scapegoated Jewish bankers and big-city immigrants,...

Greenback Labor Party

Greenback Labor Party   Reference library

Shelton Stromquist

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
319 words

...Labor Party The Greenback Labor Party represented a brief but potent Gilded Age expression of working-class antimonopoly sentiment. In the aftermath of the depression of 1873 , the formation of the agrarian-based Greenback Party in 1874 – 1875 , the railroad strikes of 1877 , and the electoral success of local workingmen’s parties in industrial states in 1877 , 150 delegates assembled in Toledo , Ohio , in February 1878 to organize the National (or Greenback Labor) Party. Its labor-oriented platform called for shorter working hours, a ban on...

Granger Laws

Granger Laws   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
456 words

...farmers also claimed that rail carriers discriminated between places and persons, formed illegal business combinations, and gave free passes to politicians and others who could serve the railroads’ interests. As the political power of organized farmers grew in the 1870 s, agrarian representatives in the state legislatures, aided by spokesmen for certain business interests, pushed through legislation in Illinois , Iowa , Wisconsin , and Minnesota that collectively were known as the Granger Laws. These laws varied from state to state, but generally...

Granger Movement

Granger Movement   Reference library

Roy V. Scott and Eric H. Walther

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
460 words

...Movement The Granger movement was the first stage of the agrarian crusade of the late nineteenth century in which farmers voiced their dissatisfaction with deteriorating economic conditions and agriculture’s declining status in a rapidly industrializing nation. The Patrons of Husbandry, or the Grange, was founded in 1867 in Washington, D.C. , by Oliver Hudson Kelley ( 1826 – 1913 ). A Minnesota farmer who became a government clerk, Kelley believed that a rural social organization modeled on the Masonic Order but admitting women to full membership...

Cleveland, Grover

Cleveland, Grover   Reference library

R Hal Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
700 words

...late nineteenth century. Following the Democrat- ic philosophy of states’ rights and limited government, he devoted himself principally to maintaining the gold standard. His actions during the depression of the 1890 s split the Democratic Party, heightened the influence of its agrarian wing, and strengthened the Republican Party. [ See also Civil Service Reform ; Federal Government, Executive Branch: Presidency, The ; Free Silver Movement ; Indian Law, Federal ; Monetary Policy ; Populist Era ; and Tariffs . ] Bibliography Hollingsworth, J. Rogers. ...

Sixteenth Amendment

Sixteenth Amendment   Reference library

John D. Buenker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
582 words

...of “tax equity.” The conviction that taxation should be based on “the ability to pay” and that it should come “from whatever source derived” increasingly united southerners and westerners, economists and tax experts, social reformers, urban machine politicians, organized labor, agrarian groups, socialists, and mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. The Democratic Party platform of 1908 called for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Pollock decision, whereas the Republican presidential candidate Taft William Howard proclaimed that a properly...

Socialist Party of America

Socialist Party of America   Reference library

Paul Buhle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
608 words

...Party of America (SPA) drew on deep roots of dissent within American society, enjoyed its peak influence during the Progressive Era, and remained a sometimes lively ghost in later years. The Socialist Party’s precursors—including abolitionists, women’s rights campaigners, agrarian radicals, utopian socialists, and trade unionists—had long proposed alternative social arrangements. Small socialist political organizations, led mainly by German Americans in the post–Civil War decades, played a crucial role in the formation of the American labor movement. But...

Populist Party

Populist Party   Reference library

Gene Clanton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
719 words

...; Farmers’ Alliance Movement ; Free Silver Movement ; Greenback Labor Party ; Immigration Law and Policy: Before 1930 ; McKinley, William ; Political Parties ; Populist Era ; Republican Party ; and Third Parties . ] Bibliography Argersinger, Peter H. The Limits of Agrarian Radicalism . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995. Clanton, Gene. Congressional Populism and the Crisis of the Nineties . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Clanton, Gene. Populism: The Humane Preference in America, 1890–1900 . Boston: Twayne, 1991. Goodwyn,...

Political Campaigning

Political Campaigning   Reference library

Richard Jensen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,443 words

...especially by powerful government officials. The idea of organized political parties was repugnant. The Party System.  In the 1790 s Alexander Hamilton proposed a strong national government based on financial interests, whereas Thomas Jefferson opposed it in favor of agrarianism. They each set up protoparties in every state to rally support. They did not take over local parties because none existed. The Jay Treaty of 1794 was a trade agreement with Britain that angered Jeffersonians , who feared republicanism was betrayed. The parties emerged as...

STATE DEPARTMENT

STATE DEPARTMENT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...policy issues, Secretaries of State James G. Blaine ( 1881 , 1889 – 1892 ), John Hay ( 1898 – 1905 ), and Elihu Root ( 1905 – 1909 ) skillfully promoted the nation’s turn-of-the-century emergence as a world power. President Woodrow Wilson pleased the Democratic Party’s agrarian wing by appointing William Jennings Bryan as secretary of state in 1913 , but the pacifist Bryan , unhappy over the belligerence of Wilson ’s protests of German U-boat attacks, resigned in 1915 . His successor Robert Lansing proved ineffectual because Wilson , advised by...

Population Policy

Population Policy   Reference library

Derek S. Hoff

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,309 words

...Residual concerns about the social ills of population concentration animated expansionary foreign policy through the Mexican–American War ( 1846 – 1848 ). As Americans rushed pell-mell into the industrial age, however, unease that population growth would undermine the nation’s agrarian character faded, and the few lone voices who doubted the inexhaustibility of natural resources were overwhelmed by the exuberant westward expansion and dramatic growth (from 35 million in 1865 to 76 million in 1900 ) of a prosperous and still seemingly wide-open country. The...

Tariffs

Tariffs   Reference library

Paul P. Abrahams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,146 words

...some tariffs to protect “infant” industries from British competition, but most imports traded freely. Political party competition and the rise of manufacturing in New England as shipping declined produced a high tariff in 1828 , denounced as the “Tariff of Abominations” by agrarians in the South and West who favored a low tariff policy benefiting U.S. agricultural exports. When Congress passed another high tariff in 1832 , the South Carolina legislature declared both the 1828 and 1832 tariffs null and void in the state, leading to a states’-rights...

VOTING BEHAVIOR

VOTING BEHAVIOR  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...their money. Like Jefferson , they felt that true republican virtue could not be nurtured in the city because it was a den of corruption and duplicity. The attitude attracted unskilled workers, traditional craftsmen, and backwoods farmers to the Democrats and in the form of “agrarianism” was a powerful force among voters into the early twentieth century. The towns and cities drew the modernizers and were Whig strongholds, especially those in New England . The traditional outlook of the Democrats proved more favorable to building and maintaining enthusiastic...

Democratic Party

Democratic Party   Reference library

Jean Harvey Baker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,891 words

...Party elected significant numbers of congressmen and senators who, given seniority rules, dominated important committees. From 1896 to 1932 , Republicans overwhelmingly controlled the federal government. Even William Jennings Bryan , who sounded like a Jacksonian with his agrarian appeals and complaints about monopolies, could not win the presidency in 1896 , 1900 , or 1908 . But Bryan marked a watershed in party thinking when he championed an activist government. The 1908 Democratic platform espoused regulation of trusts and railroads, a federal...

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