View:

Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Polish Agrarian Reform and German Minority Case

Polish Agrarian Reform and German Minority Case   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
169 words

...Agrarian Reform and German Minority Case ( 1933 ) P.C.I.J., Ser. A/B, No. 58 . On 1 July 1933 , Germany instituted proceedings in the P.C.I.J. against Poland under art. 12 of the Treaty of Versailles of 28 June 1919 ( 225 C.T.S. 188 ), alleging discriminating against Polish nationals of German race in the Posnania and Pomerelia voivodeships in the application of measures of agrarian reform. On 29 July 1933 , the Court (8 to 4) dismissed Germany's request of interim measures of protection on the ground that the request was over-broad: if granted,...

Polish Agrarian Reform and German Minority Case

Polish Agrarian Reform and German Minority Case  

Reference type:
Overview Page
( 1933 ) P.C.I.J., Ser. A/B, No. 58. On 1 July 1933, Germany instituted proceedings in the P.C.I.J. against Poland under art. 12 of the Treaty of Versailles of 28 ...
Sandinismo

Sandinismo (Spanish)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gangs

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Law
Length:
113 words

...Front for National Liberation in Nicaragua. It combines Marxism, nationalist, and anti-imperialist ideology and applies it to the view of the country’s social, political, and economic systems. It has focused on poverty, inequality, enfranchising the rural and urban poor, agrarian reform, health care, housing, and reforming the country’s institutions. Gang members in Nicaragua have said that community pride is a form of Sandinismo . One way they express this pride is by fighting similar gangs of youth from other neighbourhoods. Further reading: S. Jensen...

Black, Hugo

Black, Hugo   Reference library

Jeffrey D. Hockett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
294 words

...that the First Amendment protects virtually all forms of speech and press, including obscenity, libel, and seditious utterances, which must be protected from government censorship. This constitutional absolutism was rooted in his affinity for Populism, the nineteenth-century agrarian movement (especially strong in Alabama ) that emphasized the need to combat government’s tendency to serve powerful interests at the expense of the less fortunate. [ See also Bill of Rights ; Brown v. Board of Education ; Civil Liberties ; Japanese American Internment ; ...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings   Reference library

H. Wayne Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
323 words

... won the Democratic Party’s 1896 presidential nomination after delivering his electrifying Cross of Gold speech at the party convention in Chicago . The Populist Party also nominated him, and he ran on a platform endorsing free silver and other reforms. He personified the agrarian values of individualism, equality, and Protestant morality in an urban-industrial era of deepening class and ethnic divisions. His opposition to corporate power mirrored the spirit of discontent pulsing through the nation’s heartland, but he failed to rally the urban working...

American Farm Bureau Federation

American Farm Bureau Federation   Reference library

David E. Hamilton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
632 words

...by establishing successful insurance, cooperative marketing, and farm supply affiliates. The founders of the AFBF believed that farmers were at a disadvantage in the early twentieth century in a political system increasingly dominated by organized groups. Older forms of agrarian organization such as fraternal orders or third political parties, they argued, were ill suited to represent modern farm interests. The creation in 1914 of the Extension Service spurred the formation of a network of local and state farm associations that were often known as...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...in war and recession. Reinforcing fiscal responsibility, the Jeffersonian tradition reviled public debt as the anti-Republican harbinger of excessive federal power. High protective tariffs underwrote the longest surplus sequence in fiscal years (FY) 1866 – 1893 . Facing agrarian protest that duties should only have revenue-raising purposes, congressional Republicans expanded federal spending, notably on veterans’ pensions and internal improvements, to reduce the surplus. This practice peaked during the “Billion Dollar Congress” of 1889 – 1891 ....

Pakistan, Secular Laws in

Pakistan, Secular Laws in   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,162 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the courts were given the power to determine the competence of a witness in relation to the injunctions of Islam. Throughout the legal history of the Subcontinent and of Pakistan, a notable feature has been the economic, social, and legal significance attached to its agrarian systems of farming, assessment, collection, tenancy, and proprietorship. The system inherited by the British was well formed and successful, yet no formal codification existed in the area of land laws. The first Punjab Land Revenue Act of 1871 , amended in 1887 together with...

Cambodia

Cambodia   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,090 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and established a short-lived republican government with a new constitution, the Khmer Republic. In 1975 , the Khmer Rouge movement seized control and created a Communist state named Democratic Kampuchea. The Khmer Rouge sought to turn Cambodia into a utopian classless and agrarian society free of Western influence, and abolished the formal legal system. Most lawyers and educated professionals were executed. In 1979 , Vietnamese forces invaded Cambodia and drove the Khmer Rouge from Phnom Penh, the capital, where the Vietnamese installed the People's...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

...guaranteed, and collective bargaining agreements sacred. Neo-liberal deregulation (the Labor Reform Law 50 of 1990 with 117 articles) has considerably weakened workers’ rights and job stability to increase entrepreneurial flexibility and attract foreign investment. A number of agrarian reform laws on land tenure, most important Law 135 of 1961 , inspired militant peasant movements that by the 1970s launched bold occupations of large estates in several regions. Land disputes continue to be intense, particularly in territories claimed by Indian communities....

Thailand

Thailand   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,271 words

...the entire corpus of Thai law to provide justice according to true Buddhist doctrine. This resulted in a definitive text, the Three Seals Law, which included the Ayutthyan Thammasat and rajasat as source manuscripts, constituting a body of law for regulating life in an agrarian community. The Three Seals Law lasted for a century. King Chulalongkorn ( Rama V ) ( 1868–1910 ), a great modernizer, used the Council of State for drafting the precursor of modern legislation. In a quest for a unified system of justice, he established the Ministry of Justice...

National Socialist Law

National Socialist Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,445 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of minorities. In most of the traditional areas of the law, the National Socialists were initially confronted with the problem of having to govern with the existing law and judicial apparatus without any mature concepts of their own. One exception was the field of agrarian policy. Drawing on older theoreticians, they had already worked out a concept of state guidance with a corporative structure, price controls, and market guarantees. The judicial system was the target of the very first concrete actions. These actions were aimed at personnel...

Yemen

Yemen   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,338 words

...family endowment but also criminal cases, a variety of landed-property matters, and the occasional commercial dispute. Unlike many other historical settings—including much of the Ottoman heartlands, where there were contrasting systems of land tenure—in the Yemeni highlands the agrarian property relations prevailing on the ground were congruent with the system of individual ownership (known as milk ) envisioned in shariʿa doctrine. In Lower Yemen, with the return of Sunni rule by the Ottomans, the biographical histories report local adherents continuing to...

Fraud

Fraud   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,725 words

...start from the question of how “fraud”—from its inception a cultural phenomenon—has been juridically managed throughout the course of legal history. Early Law Codes and Medieval Legal Practice. Since late antique and early medieval law codes developed in the context of agrarian economies, they paid little attention to fraud. Several cases that were similar to fraud, dealing with elements of forgery (   falsum ), were taken from Roman law, which did not recognize any specific concept of fraud as such. The Visigothic Lex Romana Visigothorum punished in...

Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,793 words

...bankruptcy legislation was necessary, as one historian puts it, “both to protect non-fraudulent debtors and creditors and to encourage the speculative extension of credit that fueled commercial growth” (Skeel, p. 3). Jeffersonian Republicans, by contrast, called for a more agrarian future and questioned the need for a federal bankruptcy law. They feared that bankruptcy legislation would jeopardize farmers’ property by inviting creditors to foreclose during a temporary downturn and shift power away from the states and to the federal courts. This impasse set...

Release from Debt

Release from Debt   Reference library

John Sietze Bergsma

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,756 words

...the issue of loans or their forgiveness, which is the whole subject of the šĕmiṭṭâ year. Other scholars hold that Leviticus 25 is older than Deuteronomy 15 . Perhaps Leviticus 25:10–55 was a cumbersome law that proved itself unworkable or too tied to primitive agrarianism and clan culture, and therefore the author(s) of Deuteronomy 15 sought to replace it with a simpler system of debt release on a shorter cycle. This may have cut short the progressive impoverishment of the poor Israelite that constitutes one of the main concerns of the...

Ottoman Empire: Islamic Law in Asia Minor (Turkey) and the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire: Islamic Law in Asia Minor (Turkey) and the Ottoman Empire   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
6,016 words
Illustration(s):
1

...into a broad regional or generalized custom over time, under the influence of imperial policies. This was the case with land-tenure relations, which evolved into a distinct and enduring—if complex—pattern that favored small-scale production and multiple layers of ownership on agrarian land. Imperial decrees regulating market relations or a specific guild in a particular urban center were likewise based on established practice. When conditions changed, the contract and the regulations were revised, but they were still based on “custom,” for custom implied...

Private Law, Concept of

Private Law, Concept of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
5,015 words

...the status of concrete, basic principle. “Private law” also covers most other complexes of standards, the characters of which are to some extent contested. These include business, company, economic, bond, bourse and bank, work, and corporate law, as well as neighbor relations, agrarian, patent and copyright, private insurance, competition and anti-trust, liability, and consumer law. On the general European level, these also included selective guidelines, such as those for product liability, general articles, purchase of consumer goods, and discrimination. A...

Business Organizations

Business Organizations   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
6,107 words
Illustration(s):
1

...opposed business corporations as receptacles of special privilege. Under the then existing special charter system most corporate charters went to the moneyed classes. While the Jacksonians shared this disdain for special privilege, they were far more entrepreneurial than the agrarian Jeffersonians, who would have been happy with a land dominated by small, unincorporated farmers. The Jacksonian solution to the problem of corporate special privilege was not to destroy the corporation but to democratize it. Not only was the special legislative charter a...

Banks and Banking

Banks and Banking   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,751 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Pawnbrokers. On the lowest credit level ranked the pawnbroker, who granted loans on the security of movable property for a fixed rate of interest. Consumer credits were crucial for the survival of the poorer strata of society, and especially during the seasonal fluctuations of agrarian production. Pawnbroking was officially everywhere forbidden, but granted by special licenses, because people depended on the services of pawnbrokers. All over Western Europe princes and urban governments granted privileges to “Lombards,” Italian pawnbrokers who were usually...

View: