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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Honduras

Honduras   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,119 words
Illustration(s):
2

...farming. Half the population are in the rural areas struggling to make a living, cultivating maize and beans on the steep slopes. Land distribution remains a critical issue. Pressure from peasant farmers in the 1960s and 1970s resulted in some land reform. In 1992 , however, an Agrarian Modernization Law removed most of the grounds for automatic confiscation. Agriculture and related food processing provides around a third of export earnings. The leading export crop is coffee, which is produced by around a 100,000 independent producers. The other export crops are...

Diggers

Diggers (1649–50)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
53 words

... ( 1649–50 ) English millenarian social and religious sect in England, an extreme group of the Levellers . They formed an egalitarian agrarian community at St George's Hill, Surrey. It was destroyed by local farmers. The main Digger theorist, Gerrard Winstanley , proposed communalization of property to establish social equality in Law of Freedom ( 1652...

Federalist Party

Federalist Party   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
68 words

...merchants, bankers, and manufacturers. Hamilton, Jay, and James Madison (later an Anti-Federalist) wrote the ‘Federalist Papers’ essays, expressing support for sound financial management, government banking, and strong federal powers. They opposed the states' rights , agrarian philosophy of the Republican Party...

Zapata, Emiliano

Zapata, Emiliano (1880–1919)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
89 words

...Emiliano ( 1880–1919 ) Mexican revolutionary leader . His Indian peasant army supported Francisco Madero 's successful coup ( 1910 ) against Porfirio Díaz . Madero 's failure to meet his demands for radical agrarian reform, such as the return of haciendas (great estates) to native Mexican communal ownership, led to the Mexican Revolution . In pursuit of ‘land and liberty’, Zapata captured much of s Mexico. Allied with ‘Pancho’ Villa, he opposed the regimes of Victoriano Huerta and Venustiano Carranza and captured Mexico City ( 1914–15 )....

Democratic Republican Party

Democratic Republican Party   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
69 words

...the precursor to the modern Democratic Party . It was formed in the late 1790s in opposition to the Federalist Party, and led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison . It opposed strong central government and Alexander Hamilton 's economic policies, and advocated a liberal agrarian democracy, while also appealing to poor townsfolk. It became the Democratic Party in the era of Andrew Jackson...

Charles III

Charles III (1716–88)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
106 words

...He conquered Naples and Sicily In 1734 , and inherited the Spanish crown from his half-brother Ferdinand VI. He handed Naples and Sicily to his son Ferdinand, who ruled as Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Charles was a highly competent ruler. He encouraged commercial and agrarian reform, and brought the Spanish Catholic Church under state control, expelling the Jesuits In 1767 . Allied with France in the Seven Years' War , he received Louisiana In 1763 . He was succeeded by his son Charles...

Mexican Revolution

Mexican Revolution (1910–40)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
161 words

...general Victoriano Huerta . The repressive regime of Huerta caused massive unrest in the peasant community, who found leaders in Venustiano Carranza , Francisco ‘Pancho’ Villa , and Emiliano Zapata . Huerta resigned and Carranza became president ( 1914 ). Although some agrarian, educational and political reforms continued, it was Lázaro Cárdenas ( 1934–40 ) who finally began the process of land distribution, support of the labour movement, and improvements in health and...

Caesar, Julius

Caesar, Julius (100–44 bc)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
190 words

...rivals to become dictator of Rome. After the death of Sulla , Caesar became military tribune. As pontifex maximus , he directed reforms In 63 bc that resulted in the Julian calendar . He formed the First Triumvirate In 60 bc with Pompey and Crassus , instituted agrarian reforms and created a patrician - plebeian alliance. He conquered Gaul for Rome ( 58–49 bc ) and invaded Britain ( 54 bc ). Refusing Senate demands to disband his army, he provoked civil war with Pompey. Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus In 48 bc and pursued him to...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
893 words
Illustration(s):
5

... 2007 . In February 2009 , S Australia suffered devastating bush fires. In recent years Australia has brokered peace deals in the more troubled spots of the Pacific such as Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Economy Australia is a prosperous country. Originally it was an agrarian economy, although crops grow on only 6% of the land. The country remains a major producer and exporter of farm products, particularly cattle, wheat and wool. Grapes grown for winemaking, and the wine produced from them, are also important. Australia is rich in natural resources...

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
926 words
Illustration(s):
4

...economy. Its economy has become significantly more diverse since the 1960s, having evolved to virtual self-sufficiency during the days of international sanctions between 1965 and 1980 . After independence the economy underwent a surge in most sectors, with successful agrarian policies and the exploitation of the country's mineral resources. However, a fast-growing population continues to exert pressure both on land and resources of all kinds. Agriculture employs approximately 30% of the people. Maize is the chief food crop, while cash crops include...

Italy

Italy   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,181 words
Illustration(s):
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...Economic Community ( 1958 ). After the establishment of the EEC, Italy's economy began to expand. Much of the economic development took place in the industrialized north. Central Italy is less developed and represents a transition zone between the developed north and the poor agrarian south known as the Mezzogiorno. Italy has been riven by political instability (50 governments since 1947 ), endemic corruption (often linked to the Mafia ), social unrest and the wealth gap between N and S. Politics In 1992 , the old political establishment was driven from...

Gracchus, Gaius Sempronius

Gracchus, Gaius Sempronius (c.153–c.121 bc)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
70 words

...Gaius Sempronius ( c. 153– c. 121 bc ) Roman statesman . As tribune ( 123–112 bc ) he organized the social reforms of his brother Tiberius ( d.133 bc ). He sought to check the power of the Senate by uniting the plebeians and the equites, and by reforming agrarian laws to benefit the poor. These reforms were short-lived; he was defeated in the election of 121 bc and killed during the riots that...

West Bengal

West Bengal   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
134 words

...Bihar. In the 1970s, political instability was caused by Muslim-Hindu disputes, large refugee immigration from newly created Bangladesh , and Maoist Naxalite disturbances. The state is highly industrialized, its cities attracting vast numbers of male migrants from neighbouring agrarian states. Industries: vehicles, steel, fertilizers, chemicals. Agricultural products: rice, fish, jute, oilseeds, tea, tobacco. Area: 88,752sq km (34,258sq mi). Pop. ( 2001 )...

Moldova

Moldova   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
586 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and Russian populations east of the Dniester, who declared their independence from Moldova as the Transdniester Republic. War raged between the two, with Transdniester supported by the Russian 14th Army. In August 1992 a ceasefire was declared. The former Communists of the Agrarian Democratic Party won multiparty elections in 1994 . A referendum rejected reunification with Romania. Parliament voted to join the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In 1994 a new constitution established a presidential parliamentary republic. In 1995 Transdniester...

Hungary

Hungary   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
971 words
Illustration(s):
4

...majority. Jobbik's share of the vote rose from 17% to 20.5%. Prime minister Viktor Orbán has been vocal in support for Russia over the annexation of Crimea from Ukraine and highly critical of US and EU sanctions. Economy Under communism the economy was transformed from agrarian to industrial. The new factories were owned by the government, as was most of the land. From the late 1980s, the government worked to increase private ownership. This change of policy caused many problems, including inflation and high rates of unemployment. Manufacturing is the...

Côte d'Ivoire

Côte d'Ivoire   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
736 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the government because of failure to agree on a new law on marriage. Economy Ivory Coast is one of Africa's more prosperous countries. Its free-market economy has proved attractive to foreign investors, especially French firms, while France has given much aid. It has an agrarian economy, which employs about three-fifths of the workforce. The chief farm products are cocoa, coffee, and cotton and make up nearly half the value of the total exports. Food crops include cassava, maize, plantains, rice, vegetables and yams. Manufactures include processed farm...

DAR

DAR   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Abbreviations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
5 words

... Department of Agrarian...

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