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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

AGRARIAN LAWS

AGRARIAN LAWS   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
900 words

...the details of the various agrarian laws are dealt with exhaustively. The underlying assumption of the laws is that Erets Yisra’el belongs to God ( Lv . 25.23) and is therefore holy ground. The agricultural laws are regarded as “commandments dependent on the land [of Israel].” By observing certain restrictions and separating parts of the harvests as an offering or for gifts to priests, Levites, and the poor, the owner of the soil becomes conscious of his status as a mere steward, who acts in behalf of the true owner. The agrarian laws fall into a number of...

Agrarian Laws

Agrarian Laws  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The economy envisaged by the laws of the Torah was purely agricultural. The people of Israel were entering a land of milk and honey, blessed by the seven species (Dt. ...
Land Tenure

Land Tenure   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,881 words

...to dispossess the old ruling class. It did not respond to a grassroots social movement; in Egypt as elsewhere, land reform was the outcome of deliberations of urban intellectuals and politicians. In Egypt the first wave of agrarian reform divided the estates among small farmers, often their former workers, who were then organized into agrarian reform cooperatives. The second wave, after 1961 , continued this process but was more notable for consolidating the relationship between owners and renters and for requiring all farmers to join a village credit...

Time

Time   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,555 words

...religious, agrarian conception of time could be called “Catholic.” Opposed to this way of conceiving time is one that posits a regular, steady, linear, and secular time. It is the time of town hall belfry clocks and watches, sundials and hourglasses, or urban merchants and bankers, but also of Protestant theologians, moralists, and divines and could therefore be labeled “Protestant” time. In reality, of course, many kinds of time, dependent on different social and economic structures, existed simultaneously, either in symbiosis, as agrarian and...

Kharāj

Kharāj   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

.... A tax system designed for agrarian land owned by non-Muslims, kharāj is distinct from the tax system for agrarian land owned by Muslims. The Islamic state is allowed to charge kharāj (which is actually a rental) even for uncultivated land. In Islamic fiscal administration, the meaning of the word kharāj , if used without qualification, is land tax; it is imposed on landed properties owned by the conquered people, who were left on them in return for an annual tax. The kharāj was first introduced after the Battle of Khaibar when the Prophet allowed...

Mamlūk State

Mamlūk State   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
870 words
Illustration(s):
1

...DC/Purchase, F1934.20 Sultan Baybars ( r. 1260–1277 ) spent much of his reign battling the Crusader states in Syria-Palestine and securing his eastern frontiers against invasions from Il-khanid Iran. Yet he did not neglect the infrastructure of his regime. The Nile Valley 's agrarian resources were inventoried, and the Ayyūbid system of land allotments to militarists ( iqṭāʿ s) was restructured. In consequence of Baybars 's policies and those of his major successors, Qalāwūn ( r. 1279–1290 ) and al-Nāṣir Muḥammad ( r. 1310–1341 ), a state far more...

Gaismaier, Michael

Gaismaier, Michael (1491–1532)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
812 words

...contrast to other peasant manifestoes of the time, the Landesordnung was a revolutionary blueprint for a Christian utopia in which every vestige of the old church was abandoned except for the Bible. Social distinctions were abolished and political rights shared equally in an agrarian republic of small, self-governing communes. A central authority of elected officials and biblical scholars was to supervise the economy and assure the “godliness' of the new order, which banned private commerce while permitting small-scale ownership of land and mines. Most of...

Capitalism

Capitalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,903 words

...This production was tied to both commercial agriculture and urban merchants, creating a transition from traditional rural economies to industrial economies. Some, notably Robert Brenner (“The Agrarian Roots of European Capitalism,” Past and Present 97 [ 1982 ], pp. 16–113), believe this connection is so important that the era should be characterized as “agrarian capitalism” because the surplus wealth generated by agricultural production was the mainspring that drove capitalism's development. These economic models of capitalist growth in early modern...

Archives and Christian Sources at Kolkata

Archives and Christian Sources at Kolkata   Reference library

Roger E. Hedlund

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...centuries in India, especially the role of Christian missionaries and the missions in the Bengal Renaissance and related movements, and events leading to the eventual demise of colonial imperialism. These developments include the spread of vernacular and rural education, agrarian reforms, caste and communal analyses, and the rise of anti-Christian feelings during the twentieth century. Bishop's College records cover a long period of missionary activities in India, from 1791 to 1947 , of the Baptist Missionary Society * (BMS), the Church Missionary...

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, Pakistan

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, Pakistan   Reference library

Emily Van Dalen

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Bannerji , worked alongside A.J. Ranson and Alexander as church-planting, evangelism, elementary education, and medical work expanded. By 1915 , evangelistic camps were reaching two hundred villages each winter. A new canal system transformed the desert into a flourishing agrarian economy. The population expanded, and with it, so did medical, educational, and spiritual opportunities. A tract of land purchased by the ARP mission from the British (for five cents) formed the basis for the establishment of the Nancy Fulwood Hospital, the Mabel Lowry Pressly...

Knights' Revolt

Knights' Revolt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
778 words

...Revolt . In 1522–1523 free imperial knights, chiefly from Franconia and Swabia, revolted against the princes of the west central empire. The revolt's deep causes lay in the conjuncture between the lesser nobles' impoverishment during the agrarian depression of 1350–1470 and the political pressure placed on them by the growth of the territorial principalities. This double movement marginalized the imperial knights (i.e., those who had no lord but the emperor); the inflation of prices and advancing commercialization of agriculture rewarded management...

Riots, Religious

Riots, Religious   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,791 words

...Religious . Urban and agrarian riots were a familiar pattern of European social behavior long before the Reformation. Many of these violent outbursts involved religion in one way or another, for socioeconomic and political grievances were often linked to anticlericalism and theological dissent in the Middle Ages. The religious crisis of the sixteenth century intensified this behavior: for well over a century, beginning around 1520 , religious rioting proliferated wherever Catholics confronted Protestants. In speaking of “religious” rioting one must think...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,621 words
Illustration(s):
1

...food imports being 2.5 times that of exports. This situation shows no sign of improvement in the near future, given the severely limited agricultural resource base and the high rates of population increase. History. At the dawn of the nineteenth century, the Islamic lands were agrarian societies, dominated by the particularism of village life and the seasonality of agricultural rhythms. Perhaps 90 percent or more of the total population were engaged in producing their own food. The annual cereal harvest was the key to survival. Rice was the predominant food...

People's Movements

People's Movements   Reference library

Jesudas M. Athyal

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,100 words

...Traditional farmers are today being persuaded to switch to cash- and horticultural crops to earn quick money. The incidence of large-scale suicides of farmers in several parts of India in recent years is an indication of the grave problem that the region is facing in the agrarian sector. Several farmers are being forced to part with their prime land for ‘development projects’ and the new Trans National Corporation (TNC) units that are being set up. The latest in this line of ‘development’ are the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) where agricultural lands,...

Bihar

Bihar   Reference library

Jose Kalapura

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,117 words

...provision or rather non-provision for affirmative action for Christians of SC origin has virtually forced the latter not to profess their Christian identity publicly, for if they do so, they would have to forego government-supported benefits. jose kalapura Das, A.N. (1983), Agrarian and Socio-economic Change in Bihar, 1900–1980 , New Delhi: Manohar. Das, B. and R.B. Singh (2000), Bihar Ek Parichay , Patna. Diwakar, R.R. (ed.) (1959), Bihar Through the Ages , New Delhi: Orient Longman. Vannini, Fulgentius (1981), Hindustan Tibet Mission . Agra:...

Rajasthan

Rajasthan   Reference library

Jose Kalapura

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,188 words

...tourists from across the globe, and investment-friendly people from the other states of India. Several industrial estates produce export-oriented materials such as emerald and other precious metals, gypsum, marbles, red stone, sodium, textiles, and so on. The traditional agrarian products such as bajra, grams, castor, millet, pulses, and rice, besides a large livestock, sustain the economy of the state. Rajasthan is also famous for its crafts, marble work, pottery, lacquer works, and carpets. The state is fast becoming urban-populated (23.38 per cent)...

Subaltern Studies

Subaltern Studies   Reference library

Jesudas M. Athyal

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,089 words

...a renewed increase in mass poverty. In the villages, the traditional agricultural patterns are being rapidly replaced by monoculture plantations, aqua culture, and floriculture, and production meant not for the consumption of the local community but for export. The crisis in the agrarian sector is driving several farmers to suicide. While the new economic policies pose serious challenges for most sections of the population, it is undoubtedly the subaltern sections that are the most affected. One of the characteristics of the modern period is the vigorous...

West Bengal

West Bengal   Reference library

Sudhan Kumar Mitra

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,445 words

...work was undertaken by the CMS in Nadia district in 1830 , by the London Missionary Society * (LMS) in Murshidabad district in 1824 , and by the National Missionary Society in India * (NMS) in Bankura district in 1870 . These works were largely carried out in rural, agrarian areas among the poor peasants. In Nadia district, the efforts of the CMS missionaries, particularly Rev. James Long , to protect the depressed castes and peasants, especially the converts from the oppression and exploitation of the local zamindars and indigo-planters is...

Muḥammad ʿAli Dynasty

Muḥammad ʿAli Dynasty   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,508 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Free Officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser abolished the monarchy. Muhammad ʿAli was appointed governor-general ( walī ) of Egypt by the Ottoman sultan, with the backing of Cairo's rich merchants and senior religious figures. He consolidated power by eliminating the class of armed agrarian landlords ( mamluks ) and suppressing the guilds that had mobilized to fight Napoleon's occupation. He expanded central control over agriculture and trade, and built a network of factories to supply textiles, leather products, and metal wares to the armed forces. This program...

Ṭāleqāni, Maḥmud

Ṭāleqāni, Maḥmud   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,059 words

... ( d. 1936 ) to defend constitutional government against the supporters of both royal and clerical rule after the Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1909 , it acquired new significance for the religiously oriented sectors of the opposition against the shah. In the early 1960s agrarian reform became a major issue in Iranian politics with the shah's land-reform program. As a populist, Ṭāleqāni did not share many of his fellow clerics’ outright opposition to land reform, but he could not support the regime's self-serving handling of the matter. To solve this...

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