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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

PAINE, Thomas

PAINE, Thomas (1737–1809)   Reference library

Timothy Binga

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...System of Finance (New York, 1796; Paris, 1796). Agrarian Justice Opposed to Agrarian Law, and to Agrarian Monopoly (Paris, 1797?). A Letter to the Honourable T. Erskine on the Prosecution of T. Williams, for Publishing “The Age of Reason” (Paris, 1797). Lettre de Thomas Paine sur les cultes (Paris, 1797). Thomas Payne à la législature et au Directoire, ou la justice agraire opposée à la loi et aux privilèges agraire (Paris, 1797); republished as Agrarian Justice, Opposed to Agrarian Law, and to Agrarian Monopoly (Philadelphia, 1797; London, 1797). A...

TAYLOR, John

TAYLOR, John (1753–1824)   Reference library

Brian E. Butler

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...politics and agrarian values combined with a natural free market that rewards industry and talent. These ideas are further elaborated in Arator: Being a Series of Agricultural Essays Practical and Political ( 1813 ). The most popular of all his works, Arator elaborates upon two themes. First, he developed in great detail the importance of agriculture, particularly modernized agriculture, to a healthy American economy. This point neatly dovetails with his second issue, which is the centrality of localized democratic government based upon agrarian values. An...

GODDARD, William Giles

GODDARD, William Giles (1794–1846)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The U.S. government defended Rhode Island against this insurrection; in any case, the state constitution was legally amended in 1843 to expand the vote to all male adults. Goddard wrote many articles for the newspapers against the free suffrage constitution, arguing that the agrarian foundation of citizenship is essential to republican government. Goddard died in Providence on 16 February 1846 . His son published two volumes of collected writings in 1870 . Bibliography The Political and Miscellaneous Writings of William G. Goddard , 2 vols., ed. Francis...

OGILVIE, James

OGILVIE, James (1775–1820)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...James ( 1775–1820 ) James Ogilvie was born in 1775 (the exact date is not known) in Aberdeen, Scotland. Although he had good schooling, he did not graduate from an Aberdeen university, probably due to a lack of funds. He was acquainted with the agrarian and democratic theories of a distant cousin, William Ogilvie . During his teenage years he likely studied Latin and grammar with his older relation William, who was Professor of Humanity at King’s College in Aberdeen. He also admired the similar political ideas of William Godwin , who advocated...

TUCKER, George

TUCKER, George (1775–1861)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... ( 1860 ). Tucker died at the home of a daughter in Sherwood, Albemarle County, Virginia on 10 April 1861 . Tucker tended to follow the Scottish Common Sense School in psychology and ethics. As an ardent expositor of Adam Smith , laissez-faire and free trade economics, and agrarian politics, Tucker generally maintained Jefferson’s liberalism. Tucker favored a central bank, a free press, universal education (including women), the disestablishment of religion, and the gradual emancipation of slaves. He predicted the dissolution of slavery on economic grounds...

ALLEN, Ethan

ALLEN, Ethan (1738–1789)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...natural rights to raise their own government and to resist any other government, such as the British Crown or the colony of New York, that would claim jurisdiction over their lands. Reducing the proper functions of government to the protection of the economic interests of the agrarian class, Allen depicted an orderly world designed by a distant rational deity concerned for human happiness. Allen’s staunchly democratic and revolutionary diatribes were known in other colonies and contributed to the application of Locke to growing political troubles with...

HOLMES, George Frederick

HOLMES, George Frederick (1820–1897)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...conflicts between rich and poor, generating political instabilities and labor revolutions. Because the South enjoyed a more natural division between labor and aristocracy, the true ideals of republican government could be achieved there. Holmes was rescued from his agrarian life by the University of Virginia. Hearing of a new professorship there, he explained that he would teach any subject, with one exception: “I prefer not having the chair of law, as I am a little rusty in that.” Bledsoe was Professor of Mathematics there, and helped elevate...

McKay, Claude

McKay, Claude   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,426 words

...Walter Jekyll, tutored and mentored him, and McKay began his career as a writer of Jamaican peasant life in the local Creole dialect. His first poetry compilations, Songs of Jamaica and Constab Ballads , were published in Jamaica in 1912 . Songs of Jamaica depicted rural agrarian livelihoods, while Constab Ballads evoked language and scenery common to urban life in Jamaica. Both works represented the Jamaican commoner and celebrated the wisdom and folk knowledge of the class of Jamaicans living in his region of origin. McKay was the first published...

Nasser, Gamal Abdel

Nasser, Gamal Abdel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,056 words

...Britain that called for the evacuation of British bases in the Suez Canal Zone. British forces withdrew on schedule in April 1956 . Nasser and the RCC were committed to reforming Egypt’s economy to the benefit of the poor. The new regime’s first measure in this regard was the Agrarian Reform Law of 1952 , which limited the land any one individual could own to two hundred feddans (1 feddan = 1.038 acres); Nasser eventually reduced the amount to fifty feddans. The surplus land was taken over by the government and distributed to the peasant population. In ...

GREENE, William Batchelder

GREENE, William Batchelder (1819–1878)   Reference library

Michael G. Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and was compelled to resign from the Army. Returning to Boston, Greene circulated among Transcendentalist salons, was introduced to Ralph Waldo EMERSON by Elizabeth Palmer PEABODY , published an essay in The Dial , and stayed briefly at George RIPLEY and Sophia Ripley ’s agrarian commune, Brook Farm . After studying at the Baptist Theological School in Newton and the Harvard Divinity School (graduating in 1845 ), Greene took up the ministry at the Unitarian church in West Brookfield, Massachusetts from 1845 to 1851 . His marriage to Anna Shaw ,...

BARLOW, Joel

BARLOW, Joel (1754–1812)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and Propriety of a General Revolution in the Principle of Government ( 1792–93 ) made him infamous in England for his encouragement of liberty and revolution. While traveling in Savoy he composed his famous poem “The Hasty-Pudding” in 1793 , which celebrated the wholesome agrarian values that feed strong egalitarian democracies. Barlow was made an honorary citizen of France by the new republican government in 1793 . After that government fell to further chaos under Robespierre, Barlow aided his remaining friends in Paris. Although Barlow could not...

Development

Development   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,234 words

...of the poorer economies of the world. Methodologically, it was convenient for them to adopt the familiar neoclassical methodology of comparative statics. A checklist of characteristics of the metropolitan capitalist economy was compared to the characteristics of the typically agrarian economy, and the difference was taken as the “development agenda.” It was in this context that the idea of “development as growth” took hold: What should be done to secure real income growth in poor countries over a relatively long period? With the assignment to the state of an...

Independence Movements

Independence Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,285 words

...the yoke of colonialism. The group included Nigeria, Senegal, Niger, Upper Volta, Chad, Mauritania, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast (now Côte d’Ivoire), and Madagascar. But they were often more united on the economic goals, where the broad vision was for the speedy transformation of the agrarian economy into a developed one. It was therefore not surprising that, as African states began to gain independence, concerted efforts were made to reconcile the groups. The reconciliatory move contributed to the formation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1963 —now...

Sartre, Jean-Paul

Sartre, Jean-Paul   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,532 words

...the compradore bourgeoisie’s alliance with imperialism—and of his political choices. For Sartre, this “black Robespierre,” who believed in centralization under the banner of a modern party (the Congolese National Movement, or MNC), was deprived of a revolution through which agrarian reform and national unity could have been worked out. Unable to strategically set aside Jacobinism to eventually realize a socialist synthesis and achieve “invincibility,” Lumumba, the living symbol of the refusal of the neocolonial solution, had to be eliminated. He is thus a...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,791 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the eye is led away from the house. This commonplace phenomenon prompted two mid-sixteenth-century humanists, Jacopo Bonfadio and Bartolomeo Taegio , to invent the term third nature (terza natura) to describe the relationship of fine gardens to their surrounding in both agrarian and uncultivated land (see Hunt, 1996b ). They almost certainly coined the phrase with an eye on Cicero's identification of the culturated landscape in his treatise De natura deorum , as “second nature”; in its turn, this world of fields, human habitations, and infrastructure...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,487 words
Illustration(s):
3

...agriculture entailed the coercion and transformation of the natural world into a planned and regulated order. As agriculture produced a nature of systematic, standard design, so in art the natural world became correspondingly articulable through fixed schematic forms. As settled agrarian civilizations grew fiercely territorial, moreover, human figures came to require siting: Sumerian and Egyptian vases introduced the ruled groundline, and thus the defined image field: figures now are set in their “own,” limited space. These developments—symbolism, groundline,...

Black Aesthetic

Black Aesthetic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,758 words

... Watts riot) and Kuzaliwa ( May 19 , celebrating Malcolm X's birth) (Van Deburg, 1992 , p. 171). Although he saw himself, in the terms of his adopted African name, as the “keeper” of the black community's tradition, he nevertheless saw this tradition as one whose origin was in agrarian Africa, and as a tradition reinterpreted by him, rather than as the empirical one reinvented over the centuries by lower-class popular initiatives in the Americas and in the Caribbean. As a result, although he borrowed eclectically from several traditional African cultures in...

Literature and Criticism

Literature and Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
13,550 words

...Locke epitomized the critic with his publication of The New Negro ( 1925 ), an anthology containing the poetry and prose of Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and others, along with Locke’s opening essay, a manifesto calling for a New Negro who would break away from the agrarian, Romantic orientation and emerge as a decisive player in American modernity. Harlem led the way in giving rise to new voices that blended African American and African forms with classical and folk European and European American forms. At the start, Jamaica-born Claude McKay...

Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich

Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich (1746–1827)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,769 words

...ou la nouvelle Héloïse ( 1761 ). They wanted to live a secluded life far from the ‘corrupt’ city, work for agrarian reforms that would benefit the people and to serve their ‘endangered fatherland’ unconditionally. However, Pestalozzi's inexperience in farming, the poor quality of the soil and the European agriculture crisis of 1771–2 ruined the Neuhof and drove the Pestalozzi family into penury. In this situation, Pestalozzi turned away from agrarian, virtue-based republicanism and devoted himself to prototypical industrial manufacture (‘Protoindustrie’),...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

John Dixon Hunt and Mara Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,762 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the eye is led away from the house. This commonplace phenomenon prompted two mid-sixteenth-century humanists, Jacopo Bonfadio and Bartolomeo Taegio, to invent the term “third nature” ( terza natura ) to describe the relationship of fine gardens to their surroundings in both agrarian and uncultivated land (see Hunt, 1996 , Garden and Grove ). They almost certainly coined the phrase with an eye on Cicero’s identification of the culturated landscape in his treatise De natura deorum , as “second nature”; in its turn, this world of fields, human habitations,...

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