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Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Tigua Dance

Tigua Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
454 words

...are slightly hunched. The arms move from the elbows, causing the forearms to raise and lower. The legs alternately lift from one side to another. This stepping movement is subdued for women but almost a prance when performed by men. The Tigua of Ysleta del Sur are no longer an agrarian people and, as a result, the meanings of their ceremonies have changed. The dances are now prayers and affirmations of Tigua identity. The participants have individual reasons for dancing: to acknowledge answered prayers, to pray for strength to overcome a problem, or to answer...

Slovakia

Slovakia   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
811 words

...The centuries-old forced priority of German and Hungarian and the economic backwardness of a poor agrarian region caused theatre in Slovakia to develop much later than in the Czech lands. Until the 1920s only amateur theatres existed, and the national and educational aspects dominated over the artistic. Slowly a Slovak professional theatre was created with Czech aid after Slovakia became a part of Czechoslovakia in 1918 . The Slovak National Theatre was founded in Bratislava in 1920 . At first a Czech-language ensemble, which included several Slovaks,...

May Night

May Night   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
1,432 words
Illustration(s):
1

...direct in the somewhat archaic but telling use of natural brass. While it was through imitating Glinka that Rimsky truly found himself, he added something all his own: a deliberate cultivation of the ritual aspects of folklore as a manifestation of the immemorial Slavonic agrarian religion. Richard...

Mireille

Mireille   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
1,911 words

...figures in the unfolding story. Vincent sings fine music in the Act 1 duet and the Chanson de Magali (the best‐known number from the opera) but a pale cavatine in the last act. Mireille was noteworthy in its day for presenting class differences entirely within the context of agrarian, rural society and some early reviewers had difficulty accepting that a ‘mere’ country girl could sing an aria with heroic cut such as ‘En marche’. Steven...

Myanmar

Myanmar   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
2,502 words

...often called collectively “hill tribes.” These include such groups as the Shan, the Kachin, and the Chin. In the low-lands live the Burmese, who, along with their cultural and linguistic neighbors the Arakanese, form the single largest cultural group. Many Burmese follow an agrarian way of life, although one-fourth of the modern population resides in urban areas, chiefly in the cities of Rangoon (Yangon) and Mandalay. Nat Pwe Ceremony Although nominally Buddhist, the country actually has two important and distinct religions; coexisting with Buddhism is the...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
12,773 words

...by dancing, as was the month-long Opet Festival, during which the sacred bark of Amun sailed the Nile from Karnak to Luxor and back. There were dances in homage to the king at the receipt of foreign tribute, at ceremonies when the monarch conferred honors upon subjects; at agrarian work-associated festivities, such as thanksgiving, at harvest time; at postcircumcision initiation rites; at war or combat dances and games; as entertainment for the king and others of quality or rank; at banquets; at funerary feasts and in processions; and during the transport...

Cuba

Cuba   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
5,251 words

...it remained a Spanish colony, and slavery was abolished only in 1886 . In 1895 a new war for independence culminated in the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the establishment of the Cuban republic that year. On 1 January 1959 Fidel Castro 's Marxist government, based on agrarian reform, replaced a series of dictators. The population, some 12 million, are of Spanish (criollos) , African, and mixed Spanish-African descent. They are mainly Roman Catholic, which is tolerated by the government. Since the mid-nineteenth century urban Western culture has...

China

China   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
15,393 words

...Arts ; Costume in Asian Traditions ; and Mask and Makeup , article on Asian Traditions . ] An Overview The immense time span of Chinese history permits only a subjective view of so transient an art as dancing. Dance in China evolved from the socioreligious rituals of early agrarian communities, blossomed as secular entertainment under court patronage while also serving the needs of Confucian high ritual, and finally emerged as a great animating force of the theater. In theater lies China's most obvious contribution to the dance. History The texts of the...

Mahmoud Diab

Mahmoud Diab  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1932–83)Egyptian playwright. Diab's early, predominantly realistic plays were set mainly in the Egyptian countryside, then a pet locale for writers following Nasser's agrarian reforms. The call by ...
Felipe Santander

Felipe Santander  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1934–2001)Mexican playwright. Drawing on his training as an agricultural engineer, Santander had a resounding success with The Extension Agent (1978), a critique of ill-conceived agrarian reform and ...
cereal

cereal  

[Ge]A general term covering a range of barley, wheat, oats, and rye.
Santander, Felipe

Santander, Felipe (1934–2001)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
107 words

...Felipe ( 1934–2001 ) Mexican playwright . Drawing on his training as an agricultural engineer, Santander had a resounding success with The Extension Agent ( 1978 ), a critique of ill-conceived agrarian reform and social injustice in rural Mexico. Using *Brechtian techniques adapted to Mexican culture with corridos or sung ballads, Santander has his singing narrator (the cancionero ) ask theatregoers to provide the play's *denouement . The Extension Agent *toured Mexico and Latin American countries, as well as the United States; it played...

Yuyachkani

Yuyachkani   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
118 words

...by Miguel Rubio , Ana Correa , Teresa Ralli , and others. Yuyachkani is internationally recognized for incorporating music , dance , ritual traditions, masks , symbols, and other folkloric elements in its performances. Its reflections on the nationalization of mining, agrarian reform, political violence, migration, and the marginalization or displacement of social or racial groups has resulted in plays such as Copper Fist ( 1972 ), Allpa Rayku ( For the Land , 1978 ), The Travelling Musicians ( 1983 ), Against the Wind ( 1989 ), Until When,...

Bolt, Alan

Bolt, Alan (1951– )   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
131 words

... during the revolution in 1979 , living and working with his company on land outside the northern city of Matagalpa. He believes in using theatre for political and social ends, and his company performs collective works about everything from current events and sustainable agrarian practices to community life and emotional recovery from the trauma of Hurricane Mitch. See also oppressed, theatre of the . E. J....

Diab, Mahmoud

Diab, Mahmoud (1932–83)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
113 words

...Mahmoud ( 1932–83 ) Egyptian playwright. Diab's early, predominantly realistic plays were set mainly in the Egyptian countryside, then a pet locale for writers following Nasser's agrarian reforms. The call by Yussuf Idris and Tawfiq el-Hakim for a return to indigenous performance traditions no doubt influenced Diab's Layali Al-Hasaad ( Harvest Nights , 1967 ), where he revisits a village entertainment form but renders it more theatrically complex by creating three planes of reality. The Brechtian -influenced Bab El-Futuh ( The Gateway to...

Santander, Felipe

Santander, Felipe (1934– )   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
155 words

...Felipe ( 1934–  ) Mexican playwright. Drawing on his training as an agricultural engineer, Santander had a resounding success with The Extension Agent ( 1978 ), a critique of ill-conceived agrarian reform and social injustice in rural Mexico. Using Brechtian techniques adapted to Mexican culture with corridos or sung ballads, Santander has his singing narrator (the cancionero ) ask theatregoers to provide the play's denouement , a tactic which added greatly to the play's popularity. The Extension Agent toured throughout Mexico and was...

Fanshen

Fanshen (1975)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Plays (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...redistribution of the landlords' property and of assessing the needs of the community. Decisions are reversed, open criticism is invited, a bandit is re-educated, Communist ideology is propagated: ‘Without the party the village is a bowl of loose sand.’ The official policy of Agrarian Land Reform is now replaced with a new policy promoting collective farming. While fanshen promises a better future for the formerly oppressed peasants, there is still much to be done to ensure that the revolution is successful. Fanshen was remarkable in two respects: it was...

tournament

tournament   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
742 words

...sporadically during the eighteenth century (though not in England). In the nineteenth century revived interest in the Middle Ages, together with the influence of Walter Scott's novels, helped keep the form alive. In the United States, ante-bellum southern culture, with its agrarian aristocracy of slave-owners, its love of horses, and its chivalric code of manners and related worship of women, gave rise to a number of tournaments. Since then tournaments have continued in Europe and elsewhere, though generally without their former literary and theatrical...

Algiers

Algiers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
767 words

...in Algiers. The slogans he employed were in tune with the times: theatre of the masses, theatre of awakening, theatre of conscience. Performances echoed current issues. Rouiched's Hassen Terro , for example, celebrated the fight for liberation and his Ogress dealt with agrarian reform; the housing crisis and rural exodus were the themes of Abdel Kader Safir's Vacant Property ; Tone Brulin's The Dogs dealt with the recurrent topic of racial segregation. Brecht was also popular. New troupes arose to meet new social circumstances, including ...

carnival

carnival   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,277 words

...same time, the celebration of carnival is typically governed by a process of restraint and a sense of internal decorum—order within licence—even amidst its excesses of consumption and revelry. Despite nineteenth-century attempts to link carnival to agrarian origins, carnival, though seasonal, is neither agrarian nor rural, even though many of its rituals commemorate harvest practices (slaughtering of fatted cows or pigs, Caribbean cane-burning ceremonies). Centred in villages (as in Eastern Europe and Spain), towns or settled regions (Bavaria, southern...

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