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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Agrarians, The

Agrarians, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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..., The , a name given to specific Southern US poets and writers who espoused an ideology that championed regionalism and an agrarian economy for the South in the late 1920s and early 1930s. This group published The Fugitive ( 1922–5 ), a bi-monthly magazine based in Nashville, Tennessee, which combined poetry and criticism attacking the ‘high-caste Brahmins of the Old South’, in the phrase of the editorial. Perceiving themselves to have been invaded by Northern capitalist monopolies, their critique was aimed at what they took to be the cultural...

Fletcher, John Gould

Fletcher, John Gould (1886–1950)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...of Adam ( 1926 ), The Black Rock ( 1928 ), XXIV Elegies ( 1935 ), and Selected Poems ( 1938 ; Pulitzer Prize). In 1933 he returned to Arkansas and became a dominant voice in the Agrarian movement . The verse collected in The Epic of Arkansas ( 1936 ), South Star ( 1941 ), and The Burning Mountain ( 1946 ) indicates his imaginative commitment to the Agrarian vision of a self-sufficient regional culture. Among his prose works are Paul Gauguin: His Life and Art ( 1921 ); The Two Frontiers ( 1930 ), a comparison of Russian and American national...

Moore, Merrill

Moore, Merrill (1903–57)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Merrill ( 1903–57 ), American poet , born in Columbia, Tennessee; he studied medicine at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Whilst a student, Moore submitted some of his poems to the magazine The Fugitive , and his poetic career was soon associated with the Agrarians who published the journal. A massively prolific writer of sonnets, he reinvented and adapted that form for the American idiom. He then became a practising psychiatrist in Boston, but continued to publish poetry using the sonnet form with great fluency and flexibility. His...

Snopes Trilogy, The

Snopes Trilogy, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...is set in and around Frenchman's Bend and Jefferson (both in the fictitious Yoknapatawpha County in Mississippi) and follows the progress of the Snopes family who represent a new kind of South in which greed, profit, and a bogus respectability have replaced the older, more agrarian...

Tate, Allen

Tate, Allen (1899–1979)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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... poet , novelist, and critic, born in Kentucky, educated at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, where he associated with the Agrarians . With John Crowe Ransom , Robert Penn Warren , and Andrew Lytle , he believed that the South should reject the materialistic, industrially based modern world and turn to its own roots; Tate edited the magazine The Fugitive ( 1922–5 ), contributed to the Fugitive/Agrarian symposium I'll Take My Stand ( 1930 ), and wrote interpretative biographies of Stonewall Jackson ( 1938 ) and Jefferson Davis ( 1929...

Ransom, John Crowe

Ransom, John Crowe (1888–1974)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...and criticism. Its contributors included Allen Tate , Robert Penn Warren , and Laura Riding . The concern with the literary identity of the Southern states shared by the Fugitive group culminated in the emergence of the Agrarian movement; Ransom contributed the ‘Statement of Principles’ to I'll Take My Stand ( 1930 ), the Agrarian manifesto, which declared their commitment to a unified regional culture. His ideas are expanded in the defences of art, myth, and ritual against the ascendancy of scientific technology, which he dismissed as a mode of...

Lytle, Andrew

Lytle, Andrew (1902– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Andrew ( Andrew Nelson Lytle ) ( 1902–  ), American novelist and critic , born in Tennessee, educated at Vanderbilt University where he was associated with the Fugitive group, in particular Allen Tate ( see Agrarians ). He shared their vision of the need for the South to assert its cultural and spiritual independence and refuse collusion with the materialistic industrial world. He contributed to the magazine The Fugitive and to the movement's anthology, I'll Take My Stand ( 1936 ). Lytle farmed for a time in northern Alabama. Later he taught...

Bromfield, Louis

Bromfield, Louis (1896–1956)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...four novels, The Green Bay Tree ( 1924 ), Possession ( 1925 ), Early Autumn ( 1926 ; Pulitzer Prize), and A Good Woman ( 1927 ), which centred on a New England farming family, effectively illustrated Bromfield's egalitarian philosophy with its emphasis on the virtues of agrarian democracy and individual initiative. With The Strange Case of Annie Spragg ( 1928 ) and Twenty-Four Hours ( 1930 ), Bromfield displayed a technical proficiency in the construction of linked narratives converging on a single event. However, critics frequently dismissed his...

Brooks, Cleanth

Brooks, Cleanth (1906–1994)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...at Vanderbilt, Tulane, and Oxford Universities. A key figure in the development of the New Criticism , he was taught by John Crowe Ransom at Vanderbilt University where he was befriended by Allen Tate and Robert Penn Warren , and loosely associated with the Fugitive ( Agrarian ) group. He became professor at Louisiana State University and, with Robert Penn Warren, established The Southern Review which championed the New Criticism and fought, successfully, against what was left of the old, belles-lettristic , historical criticism. His Modern Poetry...

Riding, Laura

Riding, Laura (1901–91)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Laura ( 1901–91 ), American poet , born in New York, educated at Cornell University. She first attracted notice as a poet through her association with J. C. Ransom and other contributors to the Fugitive ( 1922–5 ; see Agrarians, The ), in which her verse repeatedly appeared. From 1925 to 1939 she lived with Robert Graves , with whom she produced the seminal critical work A Survey of Modern Poetry ( 1927 ). Contemporaries and Snobs ( 1928 ) and Anarchism Is not Enough ( 1928 ) are the best-known of her other critical works. The Hogarth...

Tawney, R. H.

Tawney, R. H. (1880–1962)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , from which it is often wrongly said to have been derivative, Tawney was concerned to chart how religious opinion on economic and social questions was materially adjusted to suit new social realities. It was in The Agrarian Problem in the Sixteenth Century ( 1912 ), his first book, that Tawney first displayed his mastery of the historical method that he was to deploy in Religion and the Rise of Capitalism . Although deeply influenced by Marx , it was not Marxist in any orthodox sense; the great...

Jones, Madison

Jones, Madison (1925– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Madison ( Madison Percy, Jr. Jones ) ( 1925–  ), American novelist , born in Nashville, Tennessee, educated at Vanderbilt University and the University of Florida. Jones was influenced by the ideology of regionalism of the Agrarians , especially Donald Davidson and Andrew Lytle . In the 1940s he was a farmer and a horsetrainer, and in 1956 became a teacher at Auburn University, Alabama. The regionalism is most evident in his first novel, The Innocent ( 1957 ), which deals with the life and experiences of Duncan Welsh , whilst Forest of the...

Murry, John Middleton

Murry, John Middleton (1889–1957)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...thought. His Marxist tendencies throughout the 1930s are clear from The Fallacy of Economics ( 1932 ) and The Necessity of Communism ( 1932 ). The Pledge for Peace ( 1938 ) followed his conversion to pacifism in 1936 ; during the Second World War he lived in a pacifist agrarian commune and edited Peace News . His later works include Jonathan Swift ( 1954 ) and Love, Freedom, and Society ( 1957 ), a comparative study of Lawrence and Albert Schweitzer. Between Two Worlds ( 1935 ) is an autobiography of his earlier life. F. A. Lea's Life of John...

New Criticism

New Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...who were strongly influenced by the ideas and practice of I. A. Richards and William Empson . It received its name from the book of that title published by John Crowe Ransom in 1941 ; the group also included Allen Tate , Robert Penn Warren , and Cleanth Brooks ( see Agrarians ). The New Criticism was not a tightly knit school or programme, and was considerably less consistent than its opponents have often imagined. It was chiefly a response to the new poetry of the first part of the century, the work of Eliot , Pound , Yeats . It was interested in...

Faulkner, William

Faulkner, William (1897–1962)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...imaginative artist Faulkner had an advantage enjoyed by few of his American contemporaries, that of having been born and raised in a complex society, the American South, at a critical period in its transition from a quasi-aristocratic agrarian community to a modern, industrial, and increasingly suburban society ( see Agrarians ). Those features of the ‘Old South’ which the modern South has slowly, and with varying degrees of success, sought to divest itself of—distinctions of class and race, a manorial social pattern, economic backwardness, one-party...

Madison Jones

Madison Jones  

(1925– ),American novelist, born in Nashville, Tennessee, educated at Vanderbilt University and the University of Florida. Jones was influenced by the ideology of regionalism of the Agrarians, ...
Andrew Lytle

Andrew Lytle  

(1902– ),American novelist and critic, born in Tennessee, educated at Vanderbilt University where he was associated with the Fugitive group, in particular Allen Tate (see Agrarians). He shared their ...
Cleanth Brooks

Cleanth Brooks  

(1906–1994) American literary criticModern Poetry and the Tradition (1939) Non-FictionThe Well-Wrought Urn (1947) Non-FictionModern Poetry and the Tradition (1939) Non-FictionThe Well-Wrought Urn ...
John Peale Bishop

John Peale Bishop  

(1892–1944),American poet and story writer, educated at Princeton with E. Wilson and F. S. Fitzgerald. His Collected Essays and Collected Poems appeared in 1948.
Peter Taylor

Peter Taylor  

(1917–),born in Tennessee. His stories, which sensitively depict characters and situations of contemporary middle-class life in the South, appear in A Long Fourth (1948), The Widows of Thornton ...

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