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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Southern Agrarians

Southern Agrarians   Reference library

Ted Atkinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Agrarians Agrarianism in the U.S. South was integral to the formation of regional and national ideals and identities, as evinced by Thomas Jefferson 's Notes on Virginia ( 1787 ). Influence and ethos form the connective tissue between Jefferson and the Southern Agrarians, a cohort of intellectuals emergent in the latter half of the 1920s at Vanderbilt University after The Fugitive literary magazine folded. The triumvirate of John Crowe Ransom , Allen Tate , and Donald Davidson turned from that enterprise, which involved channeling literary...

agrarian protest

agrarian protest   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
478 words

...by the agricultural labourers and cottiers who were their employees and subtenants. Agrarian crime declined after the Famine, as population pressure eased and living standards rose. Threats, assaults, and property damage all increased sharply with the return of agrarian depression from the late 1870s; but this was in the context of a movement ( see land war ) quite different, in its level of organization, ideology, and social composition, from the agrarian secret societies of earlier decades. Clark, S. , and Donnelly, J. S. (eds.), Irish Peasants:...

agrarian revolt

agrarian revolt   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
738 words

... revolt . The so-called agrarian revolt was led by western grain growers seeking greater economic returns from the new wheat industry. Organized in their provincial associations, they enthusiastically adopted co-operative techniques for buying and marketing in their production system. They soon discovered that there were clear limits to what they could achieve by local means. The grain growers hoped to maximize returns by limiting production costs. This meant dealing with the costs of credit, transportation, and machinery—that is, the banks, the railways,...

Agrarian Revolt in the Sierra of Chihuahua

Agrarian Revolt in the Sierra of Chihuahua   Reference library

Elizabeth A. Henson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,834 words

...to. Agrarian Campaigns and Normalistas Article 27 of the Constitution of 1917 mandated the distribution of land, regardless of prior ownership, to any group of campesinos who demonstrated need. Agrarian campaigns took several forms in Chihuahua in the early 1960s. In the valley of the Río Conchos and near Casas Grandes, landless workers demanded ejidos, focusing on landholdings with certificates of livestock inaffectability (CIGs). The CIGs dated from the late 1930s and were meant to encourage food production; they exempted grazing lands from agrarian...

agrarian revolt

agrarian revolt  

The so-called agrarian revolt was led by western grain growers seeking greater economic returns from the new wheat industry. Organized in their provincial associations, they enthusiastically adopted ...
agrarian protest

agrarian protest  

Was a distinctive feature of Irish rural society from the appearance of the Whiteboys in Co. Tipperary in 1761 to the Famine. Secrecy was protected by the administration of oaths ...
Hebei Province

Hebei Province (2007)   Reference library

Bent NIELSEN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...rebuilt. Bent NIELSEN Further Reading Kirk, M. (Ed.). (2009). China by numbers 2009 . Hong Kong: China Economic Review Publishing. Li Zongmin . (1993). Changes in the role of rural women under the household responsibility system: A case study of the impact of agrarian reform and rural industrialization in Dongyao Village, Hebei Province, north China . Madison, WI: Land Tenure Center. Myers, R. H. (1970). The Chinese peasant economy: Agricultural development in Hopei and Shantung, 1890–1949 . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Pomeranz...

Iron Rice Bowl

Iron Rice Bowl   Reference library

André LaLIBERTÉ

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of impoverished regions access to social services was merely theoretical. In addition, the advantages that should accrue from the Iron Rice Bowl did not amount to much during the famine of the Great Leap Forward ( 1958–1960 ) 大跃进 ‎, Mao’s plan to turn China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers into a modern, industrialized communist society, or the chaos of the Cultural Revolution ( 1966–1976 ). Yet, because workers made decisions in their councils on the benefits they should enjoy—often regardless of the economic performance of...

Hundred Schools of Thought

Hundred Schools of Thought   Reference library

James D. SELLMANN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...works no longer exist, given that Mengzi debated the followers of Xu Xing (c. late fourth century bce ), the Agriculturists were a force to be reckoned with. They advocated a well-rounded agrarian philosophy, dealing with the best means for planting, weeding, and harvesting; promoting cottage industry and price controls; and organizing people in small agrarian work forces. Two of their lasting contributions to the economics of agriculture are the ever-ready granary system and the principle of acting (buying/selling) at the right time. Diplomats The Diplomats...

Water Conservation

Water Conservation   Reference library

Ruth MOSTERN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...(Yellow) River is the most sediment laden waterway in the world, carrying an average 1.6 billion tons of silt annually. It is an amount so great that the coastal plain at its mouth grew at a rate of 6 square kilometers per year by the 1200s and even more rapidly thereafter. Agrarian civilization emerged in the fertile loess sediment that the Huang River deposited in north China, and along with it came efforts to confine the river to a predictable course. Nevertheless, its levees, the earthen embankments that paralleled the river’s course, failed more than...

Qianzhuang

Qianzhuang   Reference library

JI Zhaojin

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...commercial banking functions, including accepting deposits, granting loans, and engaging in the settlement of international trade. Qianzhuang were originally family-based or established through partnerships among family members and friends. With roots in a long standing agrarian economic society and a Confucian cultural background, qianzhuang emphasized the ethics of family values; a qianzhuang owner or a manager (in the corporate partnership) acted like a father overseeing all internal business and devising strategies to deal with external affairs....

Rural Reconstruction Movement

Rural Reconstruction Movement   Reference library

Charles W. HAYFORD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...stomach is just as empty as my illiterate neighbor’s” (Hayford 1990 , pp. 53–59). Yen responded by recruiting a team of experts, many of them with foreign graduate degrees, to live in the villages and make a “laboratory county” to develop scientific techniques that suited poor, agrarian China. A woman separates wheat from chaff in the Lanzhou, Gansu Province. Over 60 per cent of China’s population still lives in rural areas. Because the media so often focuses on “China’s economic miracle” and its booming urban population, many Westerners are unaware that...

Kangxi, Emperor

Kangxi, Emperor (1654–1722)   Reference library

Robert John PERRINS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...imperial history. In addition to solidifying Manchu rule in China and countering Russian and Mongol threats along the empire’s borders, Kangxi proved himself to be a cultured and able administrator who skillfully bridged the divide between his nomadic Manchu heritage and the agrarian civilization of his Han Chinese subjects. In the winter of 1661 Emperor Shunzhi , the first emperor of the Qing dynasty ( 1644–1912 ), contracted smallpox. On his deathbed he named his third son, Xuan Ye , as his heir, possibly because the youth had survived a battle with...

Wokou

Wokou   Reference library

John E. WILLS, Jr.

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...rulers could trade with China only by sending tribute embassies to the imperial court. Several powerful figures in Japan responded to this disincentive by attempting to prevent the departure of pirates from their bases. These measures, China’s improved maritime defenses, and agrarian and anti-commercial strategies for economic revival from the chaos of the Yuan-Ming wars were sufficient to reduce the numbers of pirate attacks on China in the 1400s. Illegal trade from the Fujian port of Yuegang and the vast legal loophole of the flourishing tribute trade of...

Xia Dynasty

Xia Dynasty (2100?–1766? bce)   Reference library

Charles C. KOLB

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...such as the Records and Annals , which were composed 2,500 years after the supposed creation of the dynasty. In addition, the existing archaeological evidence does not appear to correlate with the historical records. The Xia had villages and urban centers but were an agrarian people whose pottery and bronze implements have assisted prehistorians in developing more finite chronologies. During the Xia dynasty the major crafts included jade carving and casting bronze vessels, some of which were embellished with jade. The Xia also devised a calendar...

SNOW, Edgar Parks

SNOW, Edgar Parks (1905–1972)   Reference library

Cecilia Siu-Wah POON and Craig RICHARDS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...These experiences helped formulate his sociopolitical perspective. He remained sympathetic to the Communist Party’s emphasis on agrarian poverty in promoting a successful revolution. Unlike Russia’s Communist revolution, which emphasized class struggle based in the cities, with the proletariat (working class) overthrowing the bourgeoisie (wealthy upper class), over eighty per cent of China’s people lived in the countryside. Agrarian reform in China was the method employed by the CCP to gain control and unite the country. First Marriage and Life in Beijing Snow...

Migrant Workers

Migrant Workers   Reference library

C. Cindy FAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...rural migrant workers are more ready to establish roots in cities, which are also increasingly attracting skilled workers from overseas. Population Movements Prior to the 1980s Historically, population mobility in China has been low. This reflects partly the agrarian nature of the economy, which bound people to the land. During the first decade of the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ), mobility increased as rural Chinese flocked to the city to escape collectivization, crop failures, and poverty and to search for work and economic...

New Rural Reconstruction Movement

New Rural Reconstruction Movement   Reference library

Charles W. HAYFORD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...early 2000s that called attention to the plight of the countryside, whose problems they blamed on globalization and neo-liberal policies which relied on market incentives. Although leaders were inspired by international counterparts (especially those in Kerela, South India, an agrarian area with an extremely high literacy rate), used a range of cosmopolitan theory, and saw China’s rural problem in global terms, in their choice of a name they evoked China’s own Rural Reconstruction Movement of the 1920s and the 1930s. Rather than joining opposition to the...

Textiles

Textiles   Reference library

Margaret T. ORDOñEZ

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...ones of the lowest ranks. If one of a pair of rank squares is cut in half vertically, the official intended it for a Han-style robe that opened at center front; solid squares fit Manchu-style robes that fastened on the right side. Made of narrow-width silk fabrics, the agrarian Han garments opened in the center front and had a center-back seam. Manchu-style robes, based on a leather tradition and appropriate for horseback riding, originally had large front and back pieces. After taking over (and establishing the Qing dynasty) in the early seventeenth...

Zhou Dynasty

Zhou Dynasty (1045–771 bce)   Reference library

Constance A. COOK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...as a heroic military conquest commanded by heaven and executed by King Wu (representing “martial” reckoning against immoral leaders), who was the son of King Wen, the founder of the Zhou nation (who represented “humane” treatment of inferiors and a system of utopian agrarian government). By the Han dynasty ( 206 bce –220 ce ) the Mandate of Heaven clearly signified shifts in a system of natural forces, much closer to the five phases system ( wuxing ) that was popular by the third century bce . The Mandate of Heaven theory became a permanent part...

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