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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Richard Crampton

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...were isolated and not effective, at least until the spring of 1944 . By that time a maximum of 18,000 partisans, organized into eleven brigades, had enlisted with the forces of the Otechestven Front (Fatherland Front), a coalition formed in 1941 of communists, left-wing Agrarians, Zvenari (an authori tarian group responsible for a coup d'état in 1934 ), and Social Democrats. Support for the Fatherland Front increased as a result of Allied bombing, the advances of the Red Army, and Soviet diplomatic pressure applied in Sofia after April 1944 ...

diplomacy

diplomacy   Reference library

Z. A. B. Zeman

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...from London to Stalin could no longer prevent his agreement with the Germans. The New Order for Europe ( see Germany , 4) had first begun to take shape when, during the years of the economic slump, Hjalmar Schacht , Hitler's minister of finance, created the dependence of the agrarian economies in the Balkans on the Reich. Other steps towards the New Order were taken by aggressive moves, both military and diplomatic, including the annexation of Austria and the Munich agreement . From Hitler's point of view, these were mere frontier rectifications, intended...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings (1860–1925)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...William Jennings ( 1860–1925 ), politician and secretary of state. Reared in Illinois, Bryan attended Illinois College and Chicago's Union College of Law. In 1887 he moved to Nebraska, entering Democratic politics as a champion of agrarian reform. Elected to Congress in 1890 , defeated in a Senate bid four years later, he won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1896 but lost to Republican William McKinley . He ran again in 1900 and 1908 —both times unsuccessfully. Having supported Woodrow Wilson in 1912 , Bryan became his secretary of...

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–06)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...what is now the northwest United States. The Louisiana Purchase later the same year altered the character of the planned expedition from an exploration of French territory to a first glimpse of lands that, in the view of many contemporaries, were essential to maintaining the agrarian, republican character of the nation. The party of nearly thirty men—including Lewis and Clark, three sergeants, twenty‐two enlisted men, volunteers, interpreters, and Clark's slave—departed St. Louis in May 1804 heading up the Missouri River. They wintered at the present site...

hoplites

hoplites   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...service, comprised little more than half the adult population of their city states. Pitched and near ritual infantry collisions during the day and in summer reflected their own parochial interests in keeping warfare amateurish, uncomplicated, and thus non-disruptive to the agrarian population at large. However, after the Graeco-Persian wars , with the rise of the maritime Athenian empire of the 5th century bc , the limitations of hoplite warfare in an increasingly Mediterranean-wide theatre of operations soon became apparent to the Greeks. Fighting on...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings (1860–1925)   Reference library

H. Wayne Morgan and Christopher McKnight Nichols

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...Bryan won the Democratic Party's 1896 presidential nomination after delivering his electrifying Cross of Gold speech at the party convention in Chicago. The Populist Party also nominated him, and he ran on a platform endorsing free silver and other reforms. He personified the agrarian values of individualism, equality, and Protestant morality in an urban-industrial era of deepening class and ethnic divisions. His opposition to corporate power mirrored the spirit of discontent pulsing through the nation's heartland. When he failed to rally the urban working...

Alliance for Progress

Alliance for Progress   Reference library

Stephen G. Rabe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a year. This economic growth, it was hoped, would facilitate significant improvements in employment and in infant mortality, life expectancy, and literacy rates. In agreeing to the alliance, Latin American leaders pledged to work for equality and social justice by promoting agrarian reform and progressive income taxes. The Kennedy administration developed this so-called Marshall Plan for Latin America because it judged the region susceptible to social revolution and Communism. Fidel Castro had transformed the Cuban Revolution into a strident anti-American...

Paine, Thomas

Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)   Reference library

Dani Holtz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...next two years, Paine wrote prolifically: he argued for secularization in Age of Reason ( 1794 and 1795 ); in 1795 , he called for the French Convention to return to universal suffrage in his Dissertation on First Principles of Government ; he proposed an estate tax in Agrarian Justice ( 1795 ) to rectify the unnatural inequity generated by land distribution; and his 1796 Decline and the Fall of the British System of Finance predicted that the Bank of England would suspend payments to continue funding Britain's international wars (a prognosis...

Kellogg, Frank B.

Kellogg, Frank B. (1856–1937)   Reference library

Robert David Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...squeezed between two extremes. Neither Wilson nor his chief Republican opponent, the Massachusetts senator Henry Cabot Lodge , desired compromise; the treaty went down to defeat. Kellogg's political career, meanwhile, appeared to come to an abrupt end in 1922 . Amid widespread agrarian unrest and the implosion of the state's Democratic Party, a new third party emerged in Minnesota. To challenge Kellogg, the Farmer-Labor Party nominated a Norwegian American dentist, Henrik Shipstead , who portrayed the incumbent as a tool of corporate interests and ousted him...

Cleveland, Grover

Cleveland, Grover (1837–1908)   Reference library

R. Hal Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the late nineteenth century. Following the Democratic philosophy of states’ rights and limited government, he devoted himself principally to maintaining the gold standard. His actions during the depression of the 1890s split the Democratic Party, heightened the influence of its agrarian wing, and strengthened the Republican Party. During his second tenure in office, Cleveland demonstrated that a noninterventionist position could be effectively deployed in foreign policy. Six weeks before Cleveland took office for the second time, American businessmen in...

Huns

Huns   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...for propaganda purposes. Yet surprisingly little is known for certain about a people whose natural habitat was the Asian steppe, impacting on China, India, and Persia, and whose supremacy in Europe lasted barely a century. Steppe nomads had always been a threat to the settled agrarian societies. The Romans had been aware of the Huns at least as early as ad 200 , when the geographer Pliny describes them; but it was not until the late 4th century that they had an impact on the empire. In the early 370s, Hunnic attacks on the previously all-conquering Goths ...

Roman civil war

Roman civil war (49–30 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...surviving political heirs, Octavian and Mark Antony , to decide who should be emperor. These aristocratic struggles were possible because, for many thousands of Italians, service in the army of one or other of the military dynasts was very greatly more profitable than agrarian pursuits. Ominously, in the Roman army there was now more to be gained through loyalty to individual generals than to the state. The foundation for civil war was laid with the formation of the unofficial first Triumvirate in 60 bc , in which Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus...

State, U.S. Department of

State, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Robert David Johnson and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...issues, secretaries of state James G. Blaine ( 1881 , 1889–1892 ), John Hay ( 1898–1905 ), and Elihu Root ( 1905–1909 ) skillfully promoted the nation's turn-of-the-century emergence as a world power. President Woodrow Wilson pleased the Democratic Party's agrarian wing by appointing William Jennings Bryan as secretary of state in 1913 , but the pacifist Bryan, unhappy over the belligerence of Wilson's protests of German U-boat attacks, resigned in 1915 . His successor, Robert Lansing , proved ineffectual because Wilson, advised by ...

Foreign Aid

Foreign Aid   Reference library

Nathan Godfried and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...European economies and reintegrate them into the capitalist world economy while creating a unified economic bloc against the Soviet Union's influence. The Point Four Program, created by the Act for International Development ( 1950 ), proposed that American technical experts help agrarian nations to stimulate their domestic economies—especially the export of selected crops and raw materials—enhance their ability to purchase American exports, attract private foreign capital, and become integrated into the global economy. Such economic growth supposedly would build...

Social and Civil Wars

Social and Civil Wars (91–82 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...and defeating any armies sent to confront him. The Samnites maintained a determined resistance, but the result of the war was no longer in doubt and the last strongholds were gradually mopped up. The cost of the war had been massive in terms of human losses and damage to the agrarian prosperity of much of Italy. Sulla gained considerable prestige through his campaigns against the Italians and easily secured the consulship for 88 , and command in the war against Mithridates of Pontus . A keen rivalry then developed between Sulla and Marius, the latter...

rations

rations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of military personnel, and the search for the ideal combination of durability, portability, and nutritional value will continue. Andrew Haughton Lazenby, J. F. , ‘Logistics in Classical Greek Warfare’, War In History , 1/1 (Mar. 1994). Offer, Avner , The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation (Oxford, 1989). Wiley, Bell I. , The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (Baton Rouge, La.,...

Colonial Rebellions and Armed Civil Unrest

Colonial Rebellions and Armed Civil Unrest (1607–1775)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., 1977. Edward Countryman , A People in Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760–1790 , 1981. A. Roger Ekirch , “Poor Carolina”: Politics and Society in Colonial North Carolina, 1729–1776 , 1981. Thomas L. Purvis , Origins and Patterns of Agrarian Unrest in New Jersey, 1735–1754, William and Mary Quarterly , 39 (1982), pp. 600–27. Rachel Klein , Unification of a Slave State: The Rise of a Planter Class in the South Carolina Backcountry, 1760–1808 , 1990. Michael Bellesiles , Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the...

Vikings

Vikings   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... berserkir and ulfhe ð nir , who fought unprotected except by bear- or wolf-skin respectively, without regard for personal safety. Impressive though these specialists were, the majority of Vikings were worshippers of Þórr (Thor) whose cult centred round the weather and the agrarian cycle. The irascible, red-bearded giant-killer protected men and their livelihoods against the savage elements of the northern winter; his hammer, Mjolnir , was a popular amulet and continued even into the period of contact with Christian belief. In time, Vikings gained...

North-West Europe campaign

North-West Europe campaign (1944–5)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,600 words
Illustration(s):
1

...lie with the Allies' formula of unconditional surrender. The Germans, Nazis or not, knew very well what unconditional surrender to them had meant for other peoples, and could only assume the worst. US Treasury Secretary Morgenthau seriously proposed reducing Germany to a purely agrarian economy post-war, while the Soviets did, of course, do precisely that to the area they occupied. Cornered rats fight viciously. This, then, was what Eisenhower and his subordinates had to deal with. The element of good luck came from the fact that like many gamblers, Hitler...

Arms Industry and Trade

Arms Industry and Trade   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...about the arms industry and trade in Europe during the Early Middle Ages, even though weapons were of course widely used by the warrior tribes of the Migration Period and in the various kingdoms they established after their settlement. Early Medieval Period (c. 500–1000). In the agrarian civilization of those times, the manufacture of artifacts, whether domestic or military, was usually carried out locally in the landed estates where magnates resided and also in the few cities and urban sites that had retained (or regained) some economic activities after the...

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