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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

kulak

kulak   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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166 words

...merchants, and anyone who was acquisitive. It then came to apply specifically to wealthy peasants who, as a result of Stolypin 's agrarian reforms, acquired relatively large farms and were financially able to employ labour. A new section in the rural community had thus emerged which was marked by efficiency in cultivation and management, as well as wealth. The redistribution of landholdings in the agrarian reforms of 1917–18 reduced their numbers considerably, so that it is doubtful whether in following years they continued to form a distinctive...

Jiangxi Soviet Republic

Jiangxi Soviet Republic (1931–4)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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80 words

...Jiangxi Soviet Republic ( 1931–4 ) A Communist state proclaimed on 7 November 1931 after the 1927 breakdown of the Communist- Guomindang alliance in China. In an area equivalent to one-sixth of China's territory, the Communists initiated an agrarian revolution, developing Jiangxi as a model for the rest of China. After the fifth encirclement campaign of the National Revolutionary Army of the Guomindang, however, the soviet collapsed , forcing the Communists to escape in the Long March...

Petkov, Nikola

Petkov, Nikola (1889)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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182 words

...then went into exile in France. He returned to Bulgaria, where he led the left-wing of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union. King Boris's regime interned him in 1942 . In September 1944 , after the fall of the monarchy, he became minister without portfolio in the provisional government. In July 1945 he left the government to lead the pro-Western opposition to the Communist takeover in Bulgaria and edited the peasant newspaper, the National Agrarian Banner . After the rigged election which brought the Communists to power in 1946 he attacked Dimitrov ...

Bülow Tariffs

Bülow Tariffs   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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484 words

...was 202 to 100, with a few still disgruntled agrarian deputies also opposing the compromise. There is some evidence that this outcome must be seen in connection with two bills of 1898 and 1900 that provided for an expansion of the imperial navy. This connection allowed both industrial and estate-owner interests to be served. German industry and commerce had been anxious to get these bills ratified as part of Germany's quest to become a world power and a major rival of Britain. The majority of the agrarian conservatives, who had no love for the kaiser's ...

Marxism-Leninism

Marxism-Leninism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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140 words

...Marxism-Leninism An interpretation of Communism in which Lenin sought to adapt the central tenets of Marxism to the experience of Russia, an economically backward agrarian state. The emergence of imperialism was considered to be a central, unforeseeable factor which had occurred since the development of Marxism. This enabled the propertied classes in industrially advanced countries to expand production and to spread the economic benefits to those workers who were prepared to accept the current economic system. This group of workers formed a so-called...

Farms and Farmers in the United States

Farms and Farmers in the United States   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,004 words
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...republican virtue in the new republic, unless they joined together. In the ratification debates ( 1787–1789 ), essayists assumed agrarian identities like “Federal Farmer” or “A Farmer,” and addressed “freeholders” and “yeomen.” When western farmers protested a federal tax on whiskey during George Washington's presidency, however, Washington's secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton , attacked their agrarianism with military force in western Pennsylvania. Still, voters, in 1800 , overwhelmingly preferred Thomas Jefferson's hopeful vision of a...

Frei Montalva, Eduardo

Frei Montalva, Eduardo (16 Jan. 1911)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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357 words

...for work-related accidents and illness; centres for mothers, neighbourhood associations, and the agrarian reform. In the economic field the Office of National Planning was founded. Chilean Electricity was nationalized. State-controlled telecommunications and television networks were set up. The ‘Chileanization’ (i.e. partial nationalization) of the copper industry, whose controlling interests had until then been held by US companies, and the extensive agrarian reform epitomized Frei's ‘Revolution in Liberty’—a programme often described as communitarianism....

Stamboliyski, Aleksandar

Stamboliyski, Aleksandar (1 Mar. 1879)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
269 words

...Radomir , 1 Mar. 1879 ; d. near Slavovitsa , 15 June 1923 ) Prime Minister of Bulgaria 1919–23 Stamboliyski was born into a wealthy peasant family, and studied agriculture in Germany. After returning to Bulgaria in 1897 he became an agrarian agitator. From 1906 he played a major part in the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, becoming its leader in 1908 and gaining a seat in parliament. He was imprisoned in 1915 for opposing Bulgaria's entry into World War I on Germany's side. In 1918 he led a march on Sofia which resulted in King Ferdinand's...

Cárdenas del Río, Lázaro

Cárdenas del Río, Lázaro (21 May 1895)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
628 words

... 1924–8 respectively, and, as a trusted associate, Cárdenas was appointed to important military positions during their presidencies. His first significant elected political experience was as Governor of his home state, Michoacan, in 1928 where he displayed an enthusiasm for agrarian reform, popular education, and the encouragement of peasant organizations. At the national level his patrón , Calles, although no longer President, was still the dominant force in politics and he selected Cárdenas to be the presidential candidate for the National Revolutionary...

Chiapas Revolt

Chiapas Revolt   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
982 words

...party (the Party of the Institutionalized Revolution, or PRI), seized lands claimed by private owners, and formed new political alliances among a variety of civic and agrarian associations. State authorities, still dominated by PRI officials, struggled to defend their control of local politics, and sometimes supported the activities of paramilitary groups responsible for attacks on agrarian activists and suspected EZLN sympathizers. In the most notorious incident, a group known as “The Red Mask” murdered thirteen women and thirty-two men in the Tzotzil Maya...

Groza, Petru

Groza, Petru (1884)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
216 words

... (b. Becia, Transylvania , 1884 ; d. Bucharest , 7 Jan. 1958 ) Romanian premier 1945–52 Groza was a well-off Transylvanian landowner and industrialist who was regarded as one of Romania's finest classical scholars. In 1933 he founded the Ploughman's Front, a radical agrarian organization which drew its support from the Transylvanian peasantry. In 1944 the Ploughman's Front joined the Communist-dominated coalition party, the National Democratic Front ( NDF ). Groza stood for three policies: land reform; reconciliation with Hungary and Romania's...

Algerian War of Independence

Algerian War of Independence (1954–62)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
209 words

...the Christian colonists of French descent and Algerian Muslim nationalists who were organized into the Front de Libération Nationale ( FLN ) under Ben Bella . Despite its initial inferiority, the brutality of the well-armed French and colonists' troops soon brought the FLN agrarian mass support. The FLN continued to rely on guerrilla attacks, which spread to Algiers in late 1956 . In turn, the war radicalized the settlers and the military's hardline policies in Algeria, so much so that the governments of the Fourth Republic lost control over them. The...

Farabundo Martí Front

Farabundo Martí Front   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
905 words

...El Salvador's second major political force, governing many of the nation's major cities and holding a plurality of the seats in the legislature. The roots of the FMLN can be traced to centuries-old grievances over structural inequality and political exclusion, particularly in an agrarian economy dominated by large coffee, cotton, and cattle estates. Social discontent was contained only by brutal military repression. Frustrated by massive electoral fraud in the 1970s that kept reformist movements from power, several leftist factions broke with the Christian...

Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario

Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
558 words

...it brought back democracy and deepened it through universal suffrage, the MNR marginalized and repressed some of its opposition. The MNR nationalized the major mining enterprises, forming a state-run company, the Corporación Minera de Bolivia ( COMIBOL ). The MNR also enacted agrarian and educational reforms. All of this was accomplished by 1955 , especially remarkable given the political and economic instability of the previous two decades. In spite of these early successes, the movement was racked with discord. Campesinos and workers formed the left-wing...

Japanism

Japanism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
338 words

...traditional village life. The timeless Japanese essence of rural society stood as a counterweight to capitalism and the dislocation of identity brought on by increased social mobility and modernization. Though this form of Japanism was assertively antimodern and fed into prewar agrarian nationalism, more modern forms of Japanism were used to rationalize the very modern enterprise of building Japan's empire in Asia. Japan was viewed as the pinnacle of the multilayered hierarchy of Asian civilization, and the wartime East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was used to...

Saxony

Saxony   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
391 words

...half of the eighteenth century, but after 1815 the government became politically conservative. A written constitution and liberal reforms were introduced only after an insurrection in 1830–1831 . The reforms included parliamentary representation, communal self-government, and agrarian reforms, especially the redemption of feudal duties. Saxony formed one of the centers of the failed revolution in 1848–1849 . In foreign policy, the government tried to remain neutral in the struggle between Prussia and Austria for domination in central Europe during most of...

Gromyko, Andrei

Gromyko, Andrei (18 July 1909)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
314 words

..., 2 July 1989 ) Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs 1957–85 Gromyko was born in Belarus, the son of Russian peasants. He studied economics and agronomy in Minsk and at the Institute of Economics in Moscow and joined the Communist Party in 1931 . Gromyko worked first as an agrarian economist, writing for the journal Voprosy ekonomiki from 1936 to 1939 and joined the diplomatic service which Stalin had just purged and was aided by the patronage of Molotov . After serving for four years as counsellor at the Soviet Embassy in Washington he became...

Kekkonen, Urho Kaleva

Kekkonen, Urho Kaleva (3 Sept. 1900)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
329 words

...in his native township and university in Helsinki. Here he graduated in law in 1926 and took his doctorate in 1936 . From 1927 to 1931 he was a lawyer with a local government federation and 1933–6 with the Ministry of Agriculture. From 1936 to 1956 Kekkonen was an Agrarian (Centre) Party member of parliament and served as Speaker 1948–50 . In 1936–7 he was Minister of Justice, in 1937–9 Minister of the Interior, and in 1944–6 Minister of Justice again. In this latter post Kekkonen helped build bridges with the Soviet Union after the two Fi...

Arbenz Guzmán, Lt. Col. Jacobo

Arbenz Guzmán, Lt. Col. Jacobo (14 Sept. 1913)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
306 words

...Ponce , on 20 October 1944 . Minister of War in the elected government of Juan José Arévalo from December 1944 , Arbenz was elected to succeed Arévalo in 1950 . In 1951 he embarked on a more radical programme of nationalist reforms than those of his predecessor, including agrarian reform, which was passed by Congress in 1952 . This benefited about 100,000 peasants and affected just over 1,000 plantations, including those of the US transnational United Fruit Co. Some 387,000 acres were expropriated from United Fruit and compensation of $1 million was...

López Arellano, Oswaldo

López Arellano, Oswaldo (30 June 1921)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
359 words

... on 4 December 1972 . The subsequent 1972–5 administration adopted a populist tone and introduced a number of socio-economic reforms which aimed to modernize the country through active state intervention. Among the most controversial measures introduced was a programme of agrarian reform. However, this top-down reformism, fiercely opposed by more conservative political sectors, had lost its original impetus by 1975 . In April 1975 , López Arellano was removed from power by the military high council in the wake of a bribery scandal known as ‘Bananagate’...

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