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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarianism

agrarianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... , loosely termed ‘back to the land’, was a defining characteristic of popular radicalism. Some agrarians, like Thomas *Spence , called for the abolition of private property, while others desired a restored peasantry. Common to all was a belief in the viability of small-scale agricultural enterprise, and in the right of universal equal access to the *land [16] . Agrarianism derived from an awareness of how inequalities in landholding, which *enclosure was extending, reinforced all other inequalities. In this sense virtually all British radical...

agrarianism

agrarianism  

Agrarian societies are those which combine horticulture and animal husbandry in systems of farming. Agrarianism also refers to the romanticization of the rural farm as the ideal place for family life.
Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...metropolis, linking native traditions of middle-class Dissent with *Scottish Enlightenment and French thought, as well as with republican rhetoric from America, was also inflected by issues arising from agricultural change. Thomas *Paine 's Agrarian Justice ( 1796 ), for instance, argued for an ameliorative agrarian capitalism. Although Paine did not advocate the expropriation of farm-owners, he none the less argued that they had responsibilities to their communities which derived from an original common ownership of the land. In legal title, the commons...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and insensible’ one associated with the slow growth of commerce and manufacturing against a predominantly *agrarian background [ see *agricultural revolution ]. Acting singly, this development would have been vulnerable to the ‘ordinary revolutions of war and government’. The outcome had been made more durable as a result of the unintended by-products of the shift in consumption patterns by feudal land-owners—those with legal entitlement to the agrarian social surplus. As their expenditure shifted towards the manufactured luxuries produced or imported by...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from Ruin ( 1793 ) imagined a day when the greater public virtue, resulting from *republicanism , would end the need for any system of punishment. As early as the 1780s a more collectivist strand in republicanism was being developed in the writings of Thomas *Spence , whose *agrarian utopia was founded on the nationalization of land and its management at the parish level. Spence himself participated in the revival of utopia as a literary genre that went along with this kind of political speculation. In A Supplement to the History of Robinson Crusoe (...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...were distinctly old-fashioned (rules typically forbade ploughing in favour of ‘spade husbandry’), and were criticized on the very modern grounds that they encouraged population. Cottages represented a society of sturdy yeomen existing in some recent but ill-defined era before *agrarian change. The theory of pauperism, for all its scientific status, tended to presuppose a past age in which the poor were less dependent and corrupt. Many who borrowed Malthus's concept of population surplus wavered between his analysis of the vigorous, reproductive body and an...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and a progressive property tax. His proposals were sufficiently radical (although in line with most modern welfare states) to convey to his opponents a more general sense that the right of property would not be sanctified in the event of a major political change. Moreover, his Agrarian Justice ( 1796 ), written after having escaped execution under Maximilien Robespierre and in the wake of the proto-socialist ‘Conspiracy of Equals’ led by François Babeuf in March 1796 , provided a still more radical and principled case for redistribution to meet the...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...There were a number of occasions when economic distress, industrial disorder, and popular radicalism might have led to armed *insurrection or even revolution. The Luddite industrial disorder of 1811–13 , the widespread distress and radical protests of 1816–20 , and the agrarian revolt, industrial protests, and political riots of 1830–1 might all have sparked off an insurrection if the ruling authorities had lost their nerve or had reacted in a different way. Revolutionary conspirators did exist and did plan violent action in 1796–8 and in 1816–17...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...oriented accents intersect in every ideological sign. Sign becomes an arena of the class struggle.’ A substantial proportion of the British population struggled to form new, or re-form old, collective identities at a time when the country was experiencing large changes in agrarian, industrial, and commercial structures and processes. This essay will spotlight such contests, especially between contestants from above and below at significant moments in the development of social relations, by focusing on a series of major languages, particularly those of...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...entered a phase in which the issues of *class [15] hostility and intellectual property rights became for the first time fully explicit. Ritson's emergence in Newcastle in the later 1770s coincided with the *American Revolution , the first speeches and pamphlets of the *agrarian communist Thomas *Spence , and Brand 's Popular Antiquities . The provocation that brought Ritson onto the national stage was probably the contribution to the Gentleman's Magazine of a young scholar from Ireland, Edmund Malone, gifted enough to have won instant acceptance...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...things about the period is the way in which the middle classes authorize and legitimate capitalism and the mobility of cash and property. If the aristocratic ethos of land sees money as unstable and corrupting (despite the fact that in practice the aristocracy deployed *agrarian forms of capitalism from the seventeenth century), then part of the ideological work of the middle classes involved making money clean, virtuous, and only relatively—and not excessively—mobile. And it was partially to this end that the ideology of domesticity was promulgated....

Davenport, Allen

Davenport, Allen (1775–1846)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...a dragoon and *trade unionist and an early co-operative activist. His remarkable Life and Literary Pursuits ( 1845 ) reveals a likeable, highly positive individual afflicted by hard work, poverty, and ardent literary ambition. An early convert to Thomas *Spence 's brand of agrarian, parochial *socialism , he was by 1819 a prominent figure in London's ultra-radical circles, frequently speaking under an alias in *taverns , *debating clubs , and blasphemous chapels (Dissenting chapels in which the preacher gave freethinking, and often blasphemous,...

agricultural revolution

agricultural revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...revolution is a contested historical term designed to denote a transformation in agricultural output and *agrarian practice, chiefly in England, between 1750 and 1850 . The term emerged in the historical literature of the late nineteenth century, usually in conjunction with the similarly contested notion of ‘industrial revolution’. It focused on the ‘heroic’ achievements of eighteenth-century English farmers, such as Jethro Tull ( 1674–1741 ), in implementing revolutionary new farming techniques. These were linked with institutional...

Logan, George

Logan, George (1753–1821)   Reference library

Jane E. Calvert

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1781 . He practiced medicine only a short time before turning to the study and practice of scientific agriculture. An ardent follower of the Physiocrats and other Enlightenment thinkers, he read works by authors such as Turgot and Adam Smith and became a foremost champion of the agrarian ideal, also espoused by other American politicians such as Thomas Jefferson. They believed that in order to realize republican and democratic principles, America should be a nation of farmers, their interests tied to the land and living simply with the products of their own...

enclosure

enclosure   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of low and declining real wages) was extinguished at enclosure [ see *poaching ]. Because enclosure, even at its peak, was a piecemeal process, opposition to it was inevitably local and rarely concerted beyond one or two adjacent parishes. Radicals hotly attacked it, while *agrarianism articulated an alternative vision, but the progressive capitalization of rural society ground on remorselessly. The poetry of John *Clare conveys the simultaneous sense of impassioned hostility and futility that followed in enclosure's wake for the rural poor. Malcolm Chase...

Carleton, William

Carleton, William (1794–1869)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and worked as tutor in Louth and Dublin. In 1830 he published Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry which gave an intimate, unvarnished picture of the world of craftsmen, peasants, and small farmers at a time of mounting economic and political tension. The violence of agrarian outrage and the menace of secret societies gave Carleton's work a naturalistic bleakness which anticipates the work of Émile Zola in France. In 1834 he published further Tales of Ireland , and in 1839 a grim, emotive novel, Fardorougha the Miser . Carleton struggled to...

O'Connor, Roger

O'Connor, Roger (1762–1834)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...sought social and *parliamentary reform in Ireland [ see *United societies ]. Although an admirer of Voltaire and notoriously anticlerical, O'Connor espoused conservative politics in early life and was called to the English Bar in 1784 . In 1786–7 he helped suppress the agrarian terrorist ‘Whiteboy’ movement as a magistrate and member of the Muskerry volunteers but his views changed in the early 1790s, when he joined the revolutionary United Irishmen. He fled to England in early 1797 to avoid arrest for sedition, but returned under an amnesty in July...

Time

Time   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,555 words

...religious, agrarian conception of time could be called “Catholic.” Opposed to this way of conceiving time is one that posits a regular, steady, linear, and secular time. It is the time of town hall belfry clocks and watches, sundials and hourglasses, or urban merchants and bankers, but also of Protestant theologians, moralists, and divines and could therefore be labeled “Protestant” time. In reality, of course, many kinds of time, dependent on different social and economic structures, existed simultaneously, either in symbiosis, as agrarian and...

Spence, Thomas

Spence, Thomas (1750–1814)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Thomas ( 1750–1814 ), *agrarian reformer and radical propagandist. A pioneering critic of private property in *land [16] , he was also committed to the reform of the English *language [40] , Spence made a seminal contribution to the revolutionary and reform movements in England. His thought was a distinctive amalgam of seventeenth-century and *Enlightenment [32] ideas, iconoclastic Calvinism, and indigenous English radicalism with strong *millenarian overtones. He was introduced to radical politics by James Murray , a Tyneside Calvinist pastor and...

famine

famine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...is often thought to have become immune to famine. Historians customarily assume that the industrial and *agricultural revolutions terminated the historic pattern of recurrent major subsistence crises accompanying demographic disaster. Yet increased productivity in the *agrarian sector did not eradicate this pattern. The masses' customary diet was overwhelmingly cereal-based, and in the late eighteenth century Britain became a net importer of cereals, thereby supplementing indigenous produce. Required imports fluctuated considerably from year to year,...

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