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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Agrarian Relations

Agrarian Relations   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
225 words

... Relations , the fiscal, economic, political, and social interrelations between the owner of land and its cultivator as reflected factually in the form of rent and coercion and juridically in ownership and possession . Byz. was an agricultural society, the basis of the economy being the soil. Like Rome, Byz. attached extreme importance to the status of land and the persons who cultivated or owned land. Consequently, to understand Byz. agrarian relations is to understand both the Byz. economic system and state structure. Scholarship has tended to...

Agrarian Relations

Agrarian Relations  

The fiscal, economic, political, and social interrelations between the owner of land and its cultivator as reflected factually in the form of rent and coercion and juridically in ownership and ...
Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
599 words
Illustration(s):
1

...au Moyen Âge, de la fin de l'empire romain au XVI e siècle, Paris, 1950. G. Duby , Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West , London, 1968. The Agrarian History of England and Wales I: 2: A.D. 43-1042 , H. P. R. Finberg (ed.), Cambridge, 1972. C. H. Berman , Medieval Agriculture, the Southern French Countryside, and the Early Cistercians , Philadelphia, 1986. The Agrarian History of England and Wales II: 1042-1350 , H. E. Hallam (ed.), Cambridge, 1988. L'Ambiente vegetale nell'alto Medioevo , 1990(“SSAM”, 37). La Croissance agricole...

Wrocław

Wrocław   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
237 words

... in the region. Paul W. Knoll G. Bauch , Geschichte des Breslauer Schulwesens vor der Reformation (1909). N. Davies and R. Moorhouse , Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City (2002). R. C. Hoffmann , Land, Liberties, and Lordship in a Late Medieval Countryside: Agrarian Structures and Change in the Duchy of Wrocław (1989). K. Maleczyński , ed., Dzieje Wrocławia (1958), vol. 1. M. Młynarska-Kaletynowa , Wrocław w XII–XIII wieku: Przemiany społeczne i osadnicze ...

villa

villa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
590 words

...a combination of political circumstances (establishment of the Frankish monarchy in the Parisian basin). Finally, its area of extension seems hardly to have gone beyond the Loire and the Rhine: southern Europe, with the sole exception of Lombardy , did not know it. Studies of agrarian history referring to southern Europe give a very different image of the villa . There it appears mainly as a geographical expression designating lands linked to a centre of settlement. These lands were themselves generally divided into a great number of parcels, some of which...

Poverty, Voluntary

Poverty, Voluntary   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
335 words

... made individual poverty obligatory, but authorized ownership of goods by the monastic community. Without parochial responsibilities, monastic poverty emphasized the inner perfection of the monk (Mt 19, 21) and his trust in providence . The new prosperity engendered by the agrarian and commercial revolutions ( 1000–1300 ) gave spiritual poverty quite another meaning: instead of being an inner disposition, it became an external, socio-economic way of life. Attacks on the wealth and worldliness of the Church arose in the 11th and 12th cc. from every side:...

Labours of the months

Labours of the months   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
506 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the months The iconographical theme of the months, known from Antiquity, was taken up in the Carolingian period. At that time it decorated several illuminated manuscripts in which isolated characters performed agrarian tasks or presented objects. But it was in the 12th and 13th cc. that the illustration of the months truly developed. During these two centuries, the West, but especially Italy and still more France , integrated this motif into the decoration of their churches. The majority of these cycles were sculpted on the façade of buildings,...

Ostrogoths

Ostrogoths   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
500 words

...praesentalis ) to Italy , with a mission to destroy the power of Odoacer . Between 489 and 493 , Theodoric took possession of Italy: the Ostrogoths settled there, obtaining a third of Italian lands or, according to a more recent thesis, a third of the fiscal returns on the agrarian yield. It is certain in any case that in the end the Ostrogoths themselves became landed proprietors. Their settlement was important mainly in the Centre-North, particularly the eastern part of it. The capitals of the realm were Ravenna , Pavia and Verona . Centuries of...

Paroikoi

Paroikoi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
488 words

...the zeugaratos . He who worked a larger amount of land could be qualified as dizeugites ; if the tenure was smaller, he could be qualified as boïdatos (a single ox); if his arable land was almost nil, he was pezos (on foot) or aktemone (having nothing). P. Lemerle , The Agrarian History of Byzantium , Galway, 1979. M. Kaplan , Les Hommes et la terre à Byzance du VI e au XI e siècle, proprieté et exploitation du sol, Paris, 1992 (“Byzantina Sorbonensia”, 10). Michel...

Bobbio

Bobbio   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
459 words
Illustration(s):
1

...apogee was in the 8th-9th centuries. This wealth attracted covetousness, the Carolingians appointed Abbots the monks themselves appealed to Wala of Corbie in 834 who introduced the Reform of Benedict of Aniane . The polyptychs of 862 and 883 offer a glimpse of the agrarian history of northern Italy . The decline of Carolingian power sharpened the appetites of the bishops of Tortona and Piacenza ; in 983 Gerbert of Aurillac , appointed Abbot lamented the misery into which the monks had fallen. The creation of a bishopric at Bobbio itself...

Measures

Measures   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
663 words

...the weights and measures remained fixed over time, since progress in the productiveness of transports entailed an increase in measures such that the muid or hogshead of Charlemagne became the minot of the later Middle Ages, leaving room for muids of larger size. It is agrarian measures whose resolution raises most difficulties, not the learned measures used by land-surveyors ( actus ), but those of peasants used to calculating surfaces in terms of the quantity of seed. The variety of weights and measures was no obstacle to trade, since merchants ...

Agricultural techniques

Agricultural techniques   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
536 words

... Middle Ages the latter was a heavy instrument with numerous oxen and wheels. It was simplified in the 13th c., lost its wheels and became more manageable. The use of one or other tool is not a criterion of development: both were adapted to different types of soil and different agrarian structures. On big well-run plots (those of the masters), the plough was more usual since it went faster than the spade and, all in all, demanded less iron, thus economizing on metal and man-power, while the spade and hoe were the tools of the intensive agriculture of the ...

Paganism

Paganism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
658 words

...et paganiarum , and, in the 9th and 10th cc., Regino of Prüm's De synodalibus and Burchard of Worms's Corrector sive Medicus . From all these texts, it appears that populations were always attracted by springs, trees or rocks held to be sacred and resorted to them for agrarian festivals at the time of the June and December solstices. As in Antiquity, funerals gave rise to banquets at Tombs and chants that preachers called “diabolical”. People looked at the calendar before commencing an action; they abstained from work on Thursday, the day of...

Village

Village   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
659 words

...Since then, the origins and the very definition of the medieval village have been subject to debate. For historians, the village is characterised, on one hand, by the existence of a rural community having a legal personality and by that of a finage , i.e. an organised agrarian territory, with known boundaries; on the other, by the grouping together, in a single place, of a certain number of functions: religious, funerary, administrative, defensive, economic, none of these criteria being necessary or sufficient on their own. In terms of this...

Wrocław

Wrocław   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
512 words

...Słowiańskich , 6, 1977, 604-614 (bibl.). J. J. Menzel , “ Breslau ”, LdM , 2, 1983, 610-614. M. Młynarska-Kaletynowa , Wrocław w XII-XIII w. Przemiany społeczne i osadnicze , Wrocław, 1986. R. C. Hoffmann , Land, Liberties and Lordship in a Late Medieval Countryside: agrarian structures and change in the Duchy of Wrocław , Philadelphia, 1989. M. Goliński , Socjotopografia późnośredniowiecznego Wrocławia / Przestrzeń - podatnicy – rzemiosło / , Wrocław, 1997. Marek...

Merovingian Necropolises

Merovingian Necropolises   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
895 words

...of the same lands in late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages , we must hence admit the evidence of an almost systematic displacement of cemeteries, a probable consequence of a displacement of settlements. Such a phenomenon was doubtless related to the evolution of the agrarian economy which saw a widespread abandonment of villae in favour of intercalary settlements, many of which were the origin of France 's villages and hamlets (as their association with Merovingian cemeteries attests). In certain cases, we must also reckon with the reoccupation...

serfdom

serfdom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
816 words

...and admitted to holy places, rural slaves saw their lot approximate to that of the free poor, whose work they shared. From the 9th c., mixed unions, which two centuries later would be cruelly suppressed, became frequent. The economic revolution did the rest: the beginnings of agrarian growth, which required increased mobility of labour , led to enfranchisements. In the 10th c., in most countries of the West, slavery was no more than a relic. Nevertheless, the rural populations did not acquire freedom . In the 10th and 11th cc., the failure of public...

seigneurie

seigneurie   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,523 words

...managed to establish itself in a position of domination and to consecrate (in the proper sense) the relationship of domination as the intangible basis of the social order . Medievalists have forged a terminology intended to designate various forms of organisation of agrarian domination ( Villikation , standard large Estate , seigneurie banale , manor, reserve-tenure system, etc.). This typology, not without some arbitrariness, reflects a very real diversity and expresses quite well the absence of any general trend in the formal organisation of...

Taxation

Taxation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,092 words
Illustration(s):
1

...pressure ( e.g. , late 11th c. or 1300–1320 ). G. Ostrogorsky , “ Das Steuersystem im byzantinischen Altertum und Mittelalter ”, Byz. , 6, 1931, 229-240. F. Dölger , Beiträge zur Geschichte der byzantinischen Finanzverwaltung , Hildesheim, 1960 (repr.). P. Lemerle , The Agrarian History of Byzantium , Galway, 1979. N. Oikonomidès , Fiscalité et exemption fiscale à Byzance (IX e -XI e siècle), Athens, 1996. Cécile...

Technology, Medieval

Technology, Medieval   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,670 words

...working conditions. The systematic use of wood, the capacity to associate various mechanisms in order to obtain the service required of them, the adaptation of units of production to a system based on family holdings, these were its main characteristics, as much in the sphere of agrarian practices as in that of craftsmanship: aiming to respond primarily to the needs of the family cell in the setting of the community of inhabitants, the Peasant 's work sought not the maximum profitability, but a mean production, with a minimum of risks and efforts. This...

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