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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

misthos

misthos   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...some difficulty distinguishing between, just as it could blur the distinction between lessees and labourers). In the documentary sources for Late Antiquity it is commonly used to signify wages, such as those paid to agricultural workers on large estates . Peter Sarris Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . Sarris , Economy and Society...

fundus

fundus   Reference library

Michael Decker

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...wealth. Justinian I ’s Digest (L,16, 60) repeated Ulpian’s (d. 228) judgement that a fundus included land and also the buildings and improvements upon it. See also estate management . Michael Decker D. Kehoe , Investment, Profit, and Tenancy: The Jurists and the Roman Agrarian Economy ...

charagma

charagma   Reference library

Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... coins of lighter than standard weight, ( EdJust 11), leading to suggestions that it referred to debased or otherwise marked metal. While summarizing previous argument, however, Banaji has demonstrated that it almost certainly indicated coined metal. Rebecca Darley Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity ,...

colonus

colonus   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of coloni adscripticii if they agreed to their employer paying directly to the imperial authorities those taxes for which they were liable, in which case they and their children were legally tied to remain resident on the employer’s property. Peter Sarris P. Lemerle , An Agrarian History of Byzantium ...

epoikion

epoikion   Reference library

Kevin Funderburk

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...7th centuries epoikia grew into human settlements distinct from villages ( komai ), being owned by the landowner and inhabited by his coloni , the lessees and the wage labourers who were registered as part of a large estate’s tax responsibilities. Kevin Funderburk Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity. D. Kehoe , ‘The Economy: Greco-Roman’, in A Companion to Ancient Egypt , vol. 1 (2011). D. W. Rathbone , Economic Rationalism and Rural Society in Third-Century a.d. Egypt: The Heroninos Archive and the Appianus Estate (1991). Sarris , Economy and...

credit

credit   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Credit was fundamental to the workings of the urban and agrarian economies of Late Antiquity, with merchants and peasant producers often dependent on loans from bankers and wealthier people to invest in their businesses or plots of land, pay taxes, or escape difficult circumstances. Roman emperors went to considerable lengths to regulate the interest rates at which money in particular could be lent by, and to, different strata of society, and evidently did so with moral considerations in mind. So, for example, Justinian ’s Code ( CJ IV, 32, 26)...

ktema

ktema   Reference library

Kevin Funderburk

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

.... P. Sarris, however, argues that ktemata provided sustenance for the people of the estate while land worked as autourgia formed the basis for the family’s wealth through market sales, although cash crops may not have been produced in quantity. Kevin Funderburk Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . J. Gascou , ‘Les Grands Domaines, la cité et l’État en Égypte byzantine’, reprinted in his Fiscalité et société en Égypte byzantine (2008). T. M. Hickey , Wine, Wealth, and the State in Late Antique Egypt: The House of Apion at Oxyrhynchus (2012)....

adaeratio

adaeratio   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...of the early Byzantine economy. By the reign of Justinian I (527–65), taxes reckoned in gold could be paid in bronze. Fiscal monetization fuelled the monetization of the economy at large. Peter Sarris M. Hendy , Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy (1986). J. Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: Gold, Labour and Aristocratic Dominance ( 2 2007). C. Zuckerman , Du village à l’empire: autour du registre fiscal d’Aphrodito (525/6 )...

finance

finance   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of bankers was becoming increasingly pronounced, so much so that Justinian I ’s alienation of the argentarii of Constantinople led to a conspiracy against him late in his reign (as alluded to by the court poet Corripus). At the level of landowning institutions and the agrarian economy the situation is somewhat clearer. The papyri from Egypt in the 6th and 7th centuries, for example, reveal that landowners were keen to maximize their own private reserves of cash, and thus sought to limit the sums of coin disbursed to their workforce. Accordingly,...

coemptio

coemptio   Reference library

Paolo Tedesco

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...market exchange. By contrast, the development of coemptio in the 6th and 7th centuries in the Byzantine East is debated; it may have preserved its original character as an exceptional levy or it may have been transformed into a periodical tax obligation. Paolo Tedesco Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . W. Brandes , Finanzverwaltung in Krisenzeiten. Untersuchungen zur byzantinischen Administration im 6.–9. Jahrhundert (2002). J. Haldon , ‘Synônê: Re-considering a Problematic Term of the Middle Byzantine Fiscal Administration’, BMGS 18 (1994),...

imperial estates

imperial estates   Reference library

Paolo Tedesco

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...paying taxes to the imperial authorities through their landowners progressively became part of a public legal practice whereby such liabilities were associated with an estate’s acquisition of privileged fiscal status ( autopragia ). Paolo Tedesco Bagnall , Egypt. Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity. Delmaire , Largesses . M. Kaplan , Les Hommes et la terre à Byzance du VIe au XIe siècle (1992). D. P. Kehoe , The Economics of Agriculture on Roman Imperial Estates in North Africa (1988). Sarris , Economy and Society . D. Vera , ‘Conductores...

banking

banking   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...The terms argentarius and nummularius were used nearly synonymously ( CJust XI, 18, 1), with argyroprates as the Greek equivalent; trapeza and trapezites typically referred to money-changers only, although the distinction was not clearly maintained. AAB Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . A. H. M. Jones , The Roman Economy: Studies in Ancient Economic and Administrative History , ed. P. A. Brunt (1974). Hendy , Studies...

household

household   Reference library

Kristina Sessa

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...thousands of acres of arable land and multiple dwellings; hierarchically organized agents and stewards oversaw the quotidian business of leasing, farming, and agricultural production; and armies of labourers worked the land and factories. Because of its centrality in the agrarian-based Late Roman economy, the household was a powerful, male-dominated entity linked conceptually and materially to the public business of governing. A man skilled in the science of household management ( oikonomia ) was thought to have the necessary qualities of a capable...

inflation

inflation   Reference library

Alyssa Bandow

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Constantine I eventually created a reliable standard by which prices could be reckoned. Although the value of bronze coinage continued to fluctuate and often decrease, the effects and duration of future inflationary periods were hereafter more limited. Alyssa Bandow Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . F. Carlà , L’oro nella tarda antichità: aspetti economici e sociali (2009). A. H. M. Jones , The Roman Economy: Studies in Ancient Economic and Administrative History , ed. P. A. Brunt (1974). Hendy , Studies. G. Mickwitz , Geld und Wirtschaft...

Oxyrhynchus

Oxyrhynchus   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...come to acquire extensive landed interests in and around the city by the 6th century, and whose members also held high office in Constantinople . The discovery of this archive arguably established the Oxyrhynchus papyri as the single most important source yet identified for the agrarian history of any part of the Late Roman or Early Byzantine world. As a result, they have been the focus of much study and debate, especially concerning the nature and role of aristocratic landownership in Late Antiquity. Peter Sarris CoptEnc 6 s.n. Oxyrhynchus Papyri, cols....

poor, the

poor, the   Reference library

Kyle Harper

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... prostitution out of desperation should be approached with some caution as literary topoi, but probably also reflect real dangers faced at the time they were written. Structural poverty is even more difficult to understand. Late Antique society was based on a pre-industrial, agrarian economy, which would have determined certain features of structural poverty. In a world of mediocre nutrition, and virtually no social services, for example, physical disability must regularly have entailed increased poverty for individuals and their families. In such a society,...

villages, Eastern

villages, Eastern   Reference library

Kevin Funderburk

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...diversified the production of villages and may have encouraged greater focus on cash crops, which in turn may have widened socio-economic differences between and within villages and may have diversified rural–urban relationships. Kevin Funderburk Bagnall , Egypt . Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . G. Bohak , Ancient Jewish Magic: A History (2008). C. Foss , ‘The Near Eastern Countryside in Late Antiquity: A Review Article’, in J. H. Humphrey , ed., The Roman and Byzantine Near East: Some Recent Archaeological Research (JRA Suppl. 14, 1995),...

estates

estates   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...to have taken advantage of military disruption to shake off aristocratic control. In the East, the Persian invasion and Arab conquests are also likely to have disrupted patterns of aristocratic landownership to the advantage of peasant smallholders. Peter Sarris Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . Sarris , Economy and Society . Wickham , Framing the Early Middle Ages...

taxation, Islamic

taxation, Islamic   Reference library

Petra Sijpesteijn

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...‘ata’ ) and sustenance ( rizq ) to Muslim soldiers enrolled on the register ( diwan ) and to maintain such infrastructure as roads , irrigation works, and buildings. Petra Sijpesteijn D. C. Dennett , Conversion and the Poll Tax in Early Islam (1950). G. Frantz-Murphy , The Agrarian Administration of Egypt from the Arabs to the Ottomans (1986). F. Løkkegaard , Islamic Taxation in the Classical Period (1950). F. Morelli , Corpus Papyrorum Raineri. Griechische Texte XV, Documenti greci per la fiscalità e la amministrazione dell’Egitto arabo (2001). K....

magic and divination, Roman and post-Roman, pagan and general

magic and divination, Roman and post-Roman, pagan and general   Reference library

Richard L Gordon

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(e.g. Theodoret , Historia Religiosa , 6, 5). As ‘thinking with demons ’ became institutionalized in Christian contexts (e.g. Zacharias , VSeveri 57–65), all pagan religiosity, as well as Christian heresy , could be defined as maleficent. Since the vast majority of the agrarian population, which itself composed at least 85% of the total population, remained pagan, ‘magic’ necessarily abounded. In other words, what changed was above all the nature and visibility of a discourse concerning magicae artes . Richard L. Gordon P. R. L. Brown , ‘Sorcery,...

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