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Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarian laws and policy

agrarian laws and policy   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
510 words

... laws and policy Allocation of land by the community is attested in the Greek world at the times of new city foundations ( see colonization, greek ), and when land was annexed ( cleruchies ). There is also some evidence for legislation restricting the disposal of allotments by sale or inheritance, in order to maintain the original land‐units, which sustained the households. On the other hand, there developed strong resistance to the notion of redividing the city's territory so as to change the proportions of private landholdings: a promise not to propose...

agrarian laws and policy

agrarian laws and policy   Reference library

Andrew William Lintott

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
641 words

... laws and policy Allocation of land by the community is attested in the Greek world at the times of new city foundations (colonies; see colonization, greek ), and when land was annexed (cleruchies). There is also some evidence for legislation restricting the disposal of allotments by sale or inheritance, in order to maintain the original land-units which sustained the households. On the other hand, there developed strong resistance to the notion of redividing the city’s territory so as to change the proportions of private landholdings: a promise not to...

agrarian laws and policy

agrarian laws and policy   Reference library

Andrew William Lintott

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
692 words

... laws and policy Allocation of land by the community is attested in the Greek world at the times of new city foundations (colonies; see colonization, greek ), and when land was annexed ( cleruchies ). There is also some evidence for legislation restricting the disposal of allotments by sale or inheritance, in order to maintain the original land-units which sustained the households. On the other hand, there developed strong resistance to the notion of redividing the city's territory so as to change the proportions of private landholdings: a promise not...

agrarian laws and policy

agrarian laws and policy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Allocation of land by the community is attested in the Greek world at the times of new city foundations (see colonization, greek), and when land was annexed (cleruchies). There is also some evidence ...
misthos

misthos   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...some difficulty distinguishing between, just as it could blur the distinction between lessees and labourers). In the documentary sources for Late Antiquity it is commonly used to signify wages, such as those paid to agricultural workers on large estates . Peter Sarris Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . Sarris , Economy and Society...

fundus

fundus   Reference library

Michael Decker

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...wealth. Justinian I ’s Digest (L,16, 60) repeated Ulpian’s (d. 228) judgement that a fundus included land and also the buildings and improvements upon it. See also estate management . Michael Decker D. Kehoe , Investment, Profit, and Tenancy: The Jurists and the Roman Agrarian Economy ...

charagma

charagma   Reference library

Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... coins of lighter than standard weight, ( EdJust 11), leading to suggestions that it referred to debased or otherwise marked metal. While summarizing previous argument, however, Banaji has demonstrated that it almost certainly indicated coined metal. Rebecca Darley Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity ,...

colonus

colonus   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of coloni adscripticii if they agreed to their employer paying directly to the imperial authorities those taxes for which they were liable, in which case they and their children were legally tied to remain resident on the employer’s property. Peter Sarris P. Lemerle , An Agrarian History of Byzantium ...

epoikion

epoikion   Reference library

Kevin Funderburk

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...7th centuries epoikia grew into human settlements distinct from villages ( komai ), being owned by the landowner and inhabited by his coloni , the lessees and the wage labourers who were registered as part of a large estate’s tax responsibilities. Kevin Funderburk Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity. D. Kehoe , ‘The Economy: Greco-Roman’, in A Companion to Ancient Egypt , vol. 1 (2011). D. W. Rathbone , Economic Rationalism and Rural Society in Third-Century a.d. Egypt: The Heroninos Archive and the Appianus Estate (1991). Sarris , Economy and...

credit

credit   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Credit was fundamental to the workings of the urban and agrarian economies of Late Antiquity, with merchants and peasant producers often dependent on loans from bankers and wealthier people to invest in their businesses or plots of land, pay taxes, or escape difficult circumstances. Roman emperors went to considerable lengths to regulate the interest rates at which money in particular could be lent by, and to, different strata of society, and evidently did so with moral considerations in mind. So, for example, Justinian ’s Code ( CJ IV, 32, 26)...

ktema

ktema   Reference library

Kevin Funderburk

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

.... P. Sarris, however, argues that ktemata provided sustenance for the people of the estate while land worked as autourgia formed the basis for the family’s wealth through market sales, although cash crops may not have been produced in quantity. Kevin Funderburk Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . J. Gascou , ‘Les Grands Domaines, la cité et l’État en Égypte byzantine’, reprinted in his Fiscalité et société en Égypte byzantine (2008). T. M. Hickey , Wine, Wealth, and the State in Late Antique Egypt: The House of Apion at Oxyrhynchus (2012)....

adaeratio

adaeratio   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of the early Byzantine economy. By the reign of Justinian I (527–65), taxes reckoned in gold could be paid in bronze. Fiscal monetization fuelled the monetization of the economy at large. Peter Sarris M. Hendy , Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy (1986). J. Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: Gold, Labour and Aristocratic Dominance ( 2 2007). C. Zuckerman , Du village à l’empire: autour du registre fiscal d’Aphrodito (525/6 )...

finance

finance   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of bankers was becoming increasingly pronounced, so much so that Justinian I ’s alienation of the argentarii of Constantinople led to a conspiracy against him late in his reign (as alluded to by the court poet Corripus). At the level of landowning institutions and the agrarian economy the situation is somewhat clearer. The papyri from Egypt in the 6th and 7th centuries, for example, reveal that landowners were keen to maximize their own private reserves of cash, and thus sought to limit the sums of coin disbursed to their workforce. Accordingly,...

coemptio

coemptio   Reference library

Paolo Tedesco

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...market exchange. By contrast, the development of coemptio in the 6th and 7th centuries in the Byzantine East is debated; it may have preserved its original character as an exceptional levy or it may have been transformed into a periodical tax obligation. Paolo Tedesco Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . W. Brandes , Finanzverwaltung in Krisenzeiten. Untersuchungen zur byzantinischen Administration im 6.–9. Jahrhundert (2002). J. Haldon , ‘Synônê: Re-considering a Problematic Term of the Middle Byzantine Fiscal Administration’, BMGS 18 (1994),...

imperial estates

imperial estates   Reference library

Paolo Tedesco

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...paying taxes to the imperial authorities through their landowners progressively became part of a public legal practice whereby such liabilities were associated with an estate’s acquisition of privileged fiscal status ( autopragia ). Paolo Tedesco Bagnall , Egypt. Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity. Delmaire , Largesses . M. Kaplan , Les Hommes et la terre à Byzance du VIe au XIe siècle (1992). D. P. Kehoe , The Economics of Agriculture on Roman Imperial Estates in North Africa (1988). Sarris , Economy and Society . D. Vera , ‘Conductores...

banking

banking   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...The terms argentarius and nummularius were used nearly synonymously ( CJust XI, 18, 1), with argyroprates as the Greek equivalent; trapeza and trapezites typically referred to money-changers only, although the distinction was not clearly maintained. AAB Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . A. H. M. Jones , The Roman Economy: Studies in Ancient Economic and Administrative History , ed. P. A. Brunt (1974). Hendy , Studies...

Sō'lon

Sō'lon (c.640–after 561 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
623 words

...his political policies. For later Greek historians his poetry was the main source of information on the economic and social crisis that he attempted to deal with. Solon was elected archon for 594 / 3 at a time when Athens was on the brink of revolution, largely owing to an agrarian system in which the rich landowners grew richer and the poor were reduced in some cases to slavery and altogether to despair. Selling a debtor as a chattel slave if his possessions failed to cover the debt was an accepted practice, and many Athenians had found themselves...

household

household   Reference library

Kristina Sessa

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...thousands of acres of arable land and multiple dwellings; hierarchically organized agents and stewards oversaw the quotidian business of leasing, farming, and agricultural production; and armies of labourers worked the land and factories. Because of its centrality in the agrarian-based Late Roman economy, the household was a powerful, male-dominated entity linked conceptually and materially to the public business of governing. A man skilled in the science of household management ( oikonomia ) was thought to have the necessary qualities of a capable...

inflation

inflation   Reference library

Alyssa Bandow

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Constantine I eventually created a reliable standard by which prices could be reckoned. Although the value of bronze coinage continued to fluctuate and often decrease, the effects and duration of future inflationary periods were hereafter more limited. Alyssa Bandow Banaji , Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity . F. Carlà , L’oro nella tarda antichità: aspetti economici e sociali (2009). A. H. M. Jones , The Roman Economy: Studies in Ancient Economic and Administrative History , ed. P. A. Brunt (1974). Hendy , Studies. G. Mickwitz , Geld und Wirtschaft...

Oxyrhynchus

Oxyrhynchus   Reference library

Peter Sarris

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...come to acquire extensive landed interests in and around the city by the 6th century, and whose members also held high office in Constantinople . The discovery of this archive arguably established the Oxyrhynchus papyri as the single most important source yet identified for the agrarian history of any part of the Late Roman or Early Byzantine world. As a result, they have been the focus of much study and debate, especially concerning the nature and role of aristocratic landownership in Late Antiquity. Peter Sarris CoptEnc 6 s.n. Oxyrhynchus Papyri, cols....

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