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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarian societies

agrarian societies   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19 words

... societies [Ge] Societies whose means of subsistence is based on agricultural production, crop‐growing, and the husbandry of...

agrarian societies

agrarian societies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ge]Societies whose means of subsistence is based on agricultural production, crop‐growing, and the husbandry of animals.
Cave Tombs

Cave Tombs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
824 words

...sites (Bab edh-Dhra῾, Gezer, Jericho, Tell Ta῾anach) skulls were separated from the other bones, continuing a Neolithic practice interpreted as an element in an ancestor cult. It is commonly assumed that multiple burial in caves was the practice of extended families in sedentary agrarian societies, yet no settlement has been located in the vicinity of the Tell el-Far῾ah (North) cemetery. After a paucity of burials in EB II–III, and divergent practices during EB IV–Middle Bronze I, cave burial resumes in MB II ( 2000–1550 bce ) with the reuse of earlier burial...

Nile

Nile   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
786 words

.... Because ancient Egypt rarely received rainfall, the size and the reliability of the Nile River's annual flooding was the basis for the Egyptians' stable agrarian economy. The inhabitants lived almost exclusively within the river valley and the Delta. They distinguished between these two regions and incorporated them into their world view; the valley was known as Upper Egypt and the Delta as Lower Egypt. The Nile Valley is bounded by the Eastern Desert and the Western or Libyan deserts. These remote regions were beyond the Nile's influence and therefore...

Water Tunnels

Water Tunnels   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,086 words

...early settlement sites. Eventually, surface waters along rivers and lakes were manipulated into complex irrigation systems, rainwater was husbanded in storage reservoirs and cisterns, and underground sources, marked by oases and springs, were tapped by wells. Water sources for agrarian use—crop irrigation and animal husbandry—were normally on the outskirts of a settlement site. However, as large population centers developed, their walled defenses made external access not only inconvenient, but a fatal weakness when under siege. Access via closed tunnel systems...

Ethnoarchaeology

Ethnoarchaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,251 words

...archaeological and ethnographic fieldwork, so that the primary purpose of collecting ethnographic data is to assist in reconstructions; and scholars have consciously expanded the boundaries of ethnoarchaeology to include virtually all preindustrial societies—horticultural, agrarian, herding, nomadic, and maritime. Methodology. Ethnoarchaeologists generally agree that the primary purpose of ethnoarchaeology is to aid archaeologists and anthropologists in the difficult task of interpretation. This occurs primarily in two ways: hypotheses concerning the use...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,752 words

...orientation promoted by the Church the interest in public life gradually diminished. Monasteries became urban institutions, accumulated great wealth, and established philanthropic foundations. The Roman form of exploitation of land, the villa , was still the basis of the agrarian economy. Imperial legislation indicates that the large estates were increasing and that the coloni (peasants attached to the land) were becoming dependent peasants. The villages, however, according to archaeological evidence from Syria and Palaestine, were flourishing (...

Cereals

Cereals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,852 words

...bread and porridge to beer. Mortars and pestles, cooking pots, ovens, bread molds, beer strainers, and saddle querns are notable artifacts of grain processing. The ancient Near East's preoccupation with cereals extends beyond their cultivation, of course, to their control. Its agrarian societies were based chiefly on the wealth of cereal fields. Grains were the fundamental building block of the economy and principal medium of taxation as well. Cereal production and distribution also underlie an enormous range of ideas and their literary and artistic...

Umm El-Jimal

Umm El-Jimal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,873 words
Illustration(s):
2

...aerated cement. In 1981 new work included the excavation of the northeast church, the Numerianos church, various water channels, and the Via Nova Traiana (6 km, or 4 mi., to the west). This work confirmed that the standing buildings are mainly the product of a rural agrarian culture that flourished in the Hauran from the fourth to eighth centuries ce . A major discovery was the identification of the ruined area (100 × 100 m) between the Roman reservoir and the east church as a castellum built in about 300 and used as part of the Roman frontier...

Historical Linguistics: Classification

Historical Linguistics: Classification   Reference library

Constanze Weise

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,028 words
Illustration(s):
3

...this time were Jan Vansina’s monographs Paths in the Rainforest: Toward a History of Political Tradition in Equatorial Africa and How Societies Are Born: Governance in West Central Africa before 1600 . 20 In 1998 David Schoenbrun’s monograph A Green Place, a Good Place: Agrarian Change, Gender, and Social Identity in the Great Lakes Region to the 15th Century appeared, in which he uses linguistics and other non-written evidence to write a history of technological and agricultural change as well as the history of beliefs and ideas over the longue...

Ḥesban

Ḥesban   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,406 words

...bce ) are very fragmentary as a result of periodic removals of earlier strata on top of the hill by later builders; nevertheless, evidence for at least four strata remains. Stratum 19 (twelfth-eleventh centuries bce ) probably represents a small, unfortified village with an agrarian-pastoral economy. In its earliest phase, its most notable installation was a trench (15 m long and 3.6 m deep) crudely carved out of bedrock on the tell's southern shelf. There is no real clue as to its purpose, but suggestions include a moat for defense, storage, cultic...

Nemrud Daği

Nemrud Daği   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,334 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is the most striking and informative monument of the Hellenistic ruler cult; (2) it presents an excellent reflection of the fusion of Anatolian, Persian, and Hellenistic cultural and artistic conventions; (3) it provides telling testimony to the manner in which Mithraism, a new agrarian religion sweeping across borders from east to west, permeated long-established Hellenistic beliefs (the sculpture and inscriptions illustrate remarkably the regional tendency toward religious syncretism in the crucial decades just preceding the Christian era); and (4) the exact...

Historical Linguistics: Words and Things

Historical Linguistics: Words and Things   Reference library

Rhonda M. Gonzales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,206 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Study of History in Africa.” Journal of African History 38, no. 3 (1997): 359–391. Saidi, Christine. Women’s Authority and Society in Early East-Central Africa . Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2010. Schoenbrun, David L. A Green Place, a Good Place: Agrarian Change and Social Identity in the Great Lakes Region to the 15th Century . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1998. Stephens, Rhiannon . A History of African Motherhood: The Case of Uganda, 700–1900 . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Vansina, Jan M. Paths in the R...

Historical Linguistics: Loanwords and Borrowing

Historical Linguistics: Loanwords and Borrowing   Reference library

Birgit Ricquier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,157 words

...Method.” In Field Manual for African Archaeology . Edited Alexandre Livingstone Smith , Els Cornelissen , Olivier P. Gosselain , and Scott MacEachern , 261–263. Tervuren, Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa, 2017. Schoenbrun, David L. A Green Place, A Good Place: Agrarian Change, Gender and Social Identity in the Great Lakes Region to the 15th Century . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1998. Schoenbrun, David L. “We Are What We Eat: Ancient Agriculture between the Great Lakes.” Journal of African History 34, no. 1 (March 1993): 1–31. Notes 1. This...

African Historical Geography, Landscapes, and Environmental Change

African Historical Geography, Landscapes, and Environmental Change   Reference library

Katherine Homewood

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,078 words

...Territories: Science Is an Atlas . Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press, 1989. Notes 1. Roger Blench and Kevin MacDonald , The Origins and Development of African Livestock (London: University College Press, 2011); David Schoenbrun , A Green Place, a Good Place: Agrarian Change, Gender, and Social Identity in the Great Lakes Region to the 15th Century (Westport, CT: Heinemann, 1998); and K. de Luna , Collecting Food, Cultivating People: Subsistence and Society in Central Africa (New Haven, CT: Yale, 2016). 2. Neal Spencer , Anna...

Material Culture as a Historical Source

Material Culture as a Historical Source   Reference library

Robert Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,023 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., 85–109. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Ross, Robert , Marja Hinfelaar , and Iva Peša , eds. The Objects of Life in Central Africa: The History of Consumption and Social Change, 1840–1980 . Boston: Brill, 2007. Schoenbrun, David L . A Green Place, A Good Place: Agrarian Change, Gender and Social Identity in the Great Lakes Region to the 15th Century . Oxford: James Currey, 1998. Schoenbrun, David L. “Conjuring the Modern in Africa: Durability and Rupture in Histories of Public Healing between the Great Lakes of East Africa.” American Historical...

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods   Reference library

Liza Gijanto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,209 words
Illustration(s):
2

...contexts, a few studies have sought to combine observations made regarding food production and cooking with those related to ceramics to answer this critique. For example, archaeologists have largely concentrated their inquiries into the relationship between pottery and food on agrarian communities in eastern and western Africa. Interviews and observations in one or multiple villages that are related to the same ethnic or tribal group, usually with direct relationships between them whether they are social, economic, or political, are the norm. One such study...

South African Historical Writing to the End of the Apartheid Era

South African Historical Writing to the End of the Apartheid Era   Reference library

Christopher Saunders

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,107 words

...Biography of a People (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003). 7. Eric Walker, A History of South Africa (London: Longmans, Green, 1928); and Walkers, The Great Trek (London: Adam Charles, 1934). 8. William Miller Macmillan, The South African Agrarian Problem and Its Historical Development (Johannesburg: Central News Agency, 1919), The Cape Colour Question (London: Longman, 1927); Macmillan Bantu, Boer and Briton: The Making of the South African Native Problem (London: Oxford University Press, 1929); Macmillan and ...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,242 words
Illustration(s):
3

...construction, canal digging, and even alterations in river courses. The advantages of scale in irrigation agriculture—from planning to production—were apparently recognized early on and resulted in numerous grandiose state initiatives. The third-millennium managers of this agrarian society left records outlining the farming system. One Ur III text, the so-called Farmer's Instruction, apparently intended to disseminate practicable information. It detailed fieldwork from initial preparation through harvest. Its outline of agricultural practice fits readily...

The Bantu Expansion

The Bantu Expansion   Reference library

Koen Bostoen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

...different areas where early Bantu speakers settled and to different themes highlighting the significance of human agency and contingency in shaping the Bantu expansion, such as ethnic and economic change and interactions with non–Bantu-speakers in the Uele region of Congo; 95 agrarian change, gender, and social identity in the Great Lakes region of eastern Africa; 96 social and economic exchanges with autochthonous foragers in the western equatorial rainforest; 97 agriculture, ecology, kinship, and gender in Tanzania’s Corridor; 98 thought, belief, and...

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