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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Orotava, Jardín de Aclimatación de la

Orotava, Jardín de Aclimatación de la   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...grown to great size. Apart from displaying the plant collections the garden also has a programme of botanical research chiefly concerned with conservation and education. Seed is distributed from a very wide range of families. The garden is managed by the ICIA, the Canary Islands agrarian council, with a particular interest in plants of agricultural potential, but it also takes an interest in new ornamental species. The garden also has a small subsidiary, the Hijuela, a formal garden in the town of Orotava which is notable for a good example of the dragon tree ...

Branitz

Branitz   Reference library

Andreas Pahl

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and a so-called outer park of about 500 hectares/1,235 acres, the latter of which was designed in the style of a ferme ornée . In contrast to the park in Muskau where Pückler was able skilfully to make use of the natural spaces, the challenge of Branitz was to turn a plain agrarian landscape into a diverse and highly individual landscaped park. Branitz is considered Pückler's final work and signifies at the same time the final stage in the development of landscape gardens in Germany. While Pückler's landscaping of the outer park essentially is restricted...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and economic properties which we were not able to investigate,’ wrote Banks (quoted in Sir Joseph Hooker (ed.), Some Account of That Part of New Holland Known as New South Wales , 1896 ). Banks's influential report led the British government to the idea of establishing an agrarian settlement using convict labour. Subsequently Banks advised the first governor, Captain Arthur Phillip, on economical plants for the First Fleet: seeds and plants from England, Rio de Janeiro, and the Cape of Good Hope. These plants and seed, essential for survival, were grown...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,791 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the eye is led away from the house. This commonplace phenomenon prompted two mid-sixteenth-century humanists, Jacopo Bonfadio and Bartolomeo Taegio , to invent the term third nature (terza natura) to describe the relationship of fine gardens to their surrounding in both agrarian and uncultivated land (see Hunt, 1996b ). They almost certainly coined the phrase with an eye on Cicero's identification of the culturated landscape in his treatise De natura deorum , as “second nature”; in its turn, this world of fields, human habitations, and infrastructure...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,487 words
Illustration(s):
3

...agriculture entailed the coercion and transformation of the natural world into a planned and regulated order. As agriculture produced a nature of systematic, standard design, so in art the natural world became correspondingly articulable through fixed schematic forms. As settled agrarian civilizations grew fiercely territorial, moreover, human figures came to require siting: Sumerian and Egyptian vases introduced the ruled groundline, and thus the defined image field: figures now are set in their “own,” limited space. These developments—symbolism, groundline,...

Black Aesthetic

Black Aesthetic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,758 words

... Watts riot) and Kuzaliwa ( May 19 , celebrating Malcolm X's birth) (Van Deburg, 1992 , p. 171). Although he saw himself, in the terms of his adopted African name, as the “keeper” of the black community's tradition, he nevertheless saw this tradition as one whose origin was in agrarian Africa, and as a tradition reinterpreted by him, rather than as the empirical one reinvented over the centuries by lower-class popular initiatives in the Americas and in the Caribbean. As a result, although he borrowed eclectically from several traditional African cultures in...

Ethnography

Ethnography   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,164 words

...thus underwent great changes during the 12 centuries of Islamic domination. Of these the most visible and important were directly connected to the great political convulsions within the region. In 600 Arabs and Turks were unimportant frontiersmen within the ancient city-based agrarian societies of southwest Asia and North Africa. In 1800 almost the entire region from the Atlantic coast of Morocco to the Tigris was Arab in speech and cultural identity. From Tunisia to Central Asia political hegemony was firmly in the grip of various Turkish dynasties and...

Geography and trade

Geography and trade   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,572 words
Illustration(s):
3

...spectacular form of this phenomenon is found in the great river systems, fed by heavy rain and snow in remote highlands: the Nile, the Tigris–Euphrates, the Amu, the Syr and the Zarafshan. Such river systems are the basis for the vast irrigation schemes that have supported the agrarian civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Transoxiana for millennia. An equally critical role is played by innumerable but widely scattered oases. Small oases are often spring-fed, but the most important ones (e.g. Isfahan, Damascus or the Oued Draa in Morocco) are watered either...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

John Dixon Hunt and Mara Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,762 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the eye is led away from the house. This commonplace phenomenon prompted two mid-sixteenth-century humanists, Jacopo Bonfadio and Bartolomeo Taegio, to invent the term “third nature” ( terza natura ) to describe the relationship of fine gardens to their surroundings in both agrarian and uncultivated land (see Hunt, 1996 , Garden and Grove ). They almost certainly coined the phrase with an eye on Cicero’s identification of the culturated landscape in his treatise De natura deorum , as “second nature”; in its turn, this world of fields, human habitations,...

Bearden, Romare

Bearden, Romare (1911–1988)   Reference library

Jacqueline Francis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

...heroes, and ministers—in his pictures of the 1940s. Nevertheless, if the backdrop for this early work is a Utopian, color-blind world, Bearden’s later production contains countless associative flora, fauna, and inorganic emblems that tie it to black ethno-cultural spaces: the agrarian American South, the industrialized American North, the modern performance hall somewhere in the Western hemisphere, and the Caribbean tropics. Bearden extracted potent symbols from their original contexts in popular and art magazines, academic texts, calendars, and newspapers,...

Helladic

Helladic   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
6,287 words
Illustration(s):
2

...were buried in cist graves, underground chambers or clefts in the rocks. During the eh iii period several waves of destruction swept the mainland. Not all sites suffered, but settlements were abandoned, overseas contacts were forsaken, and the culture regressed to a purely agrarian economy. Changes in pottery coincided with the introduction of the potter’s wheel, and a new apsidal type of house prevailed. Both the upheaval and the new cultural elements are often attributed to the invasion of proto-Greek-speaking peoples. By the end of eh iii there were...

Indonesia, Republic of

Indonesia, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...responsible for local security and the repair and maintenance of public facilities. Usually the only truly urban sections of these cities were the quarters occupied by foreign traders, notably the Chinese. Historically, Indonesian political and cultural life was focused on the agrarian-based kraton (palace) or holy town. The core comprised the kraton and the main temples surrounded by the houses of the nobility and religious leaders. Traditionally, the royal cities comprised a series of settlements clustered around the seat of government of the local...

Mughal

Mughal   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,052 words
Illustration(s):
2

...ancestors, the Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, especially their luxury books ( see Illustration , §V, D ) and jades ( see Jade ). These Timurid wares provided prototypes for Mughal wares, which were also inscribed with the names and titles of the emperors. I. Habib : The Agrarian System of Mughal India (Bombay, 1963) B. G asgoigne : The Great Moghuls (London, 1971; R 1987) A. J. Qaisar : The Indian Response to European Technology and Culture, 1498–1707 (Delhi, 1982) T. Raychaudhari and I. Habib , eds.: The Cambridge Economic History of India , i...

North America

North America   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,766 words

...of many of these painters and is useful as a comparative approach to the history of art in North America. The mural tradition that began in the religious establishments of colonial Mexico took a more provocative turn at the time of the country’s populist uprising for social and agrarian reform beginning in 1910 with the founding of the Centro Artistico by Gerardo Murillo, who signed his works Dr. Alt , the model for and teacher of a generation of muralists. After 1920 , with the formation of a new government, painters were enlisted to provide large-scale...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Christopher Fitter, Holmes Rolston III, Daniel Joseph Nadenicek, and Allen A. Carlson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...agriculture entailed the coercion and transformation of the natural world into a planned and regulated order. As agriculture produced a nature of systematic, standard design, so in art the natural world became correspondingly articulable through fixed schematic forms. As settled agrarian civilizations grew fiercely territorial, moreover, human figures came to require siting: Sumerian and Egyptian vases introduced the ruled groundline, and thus the defined image field: figures now are set in their “own,” limited space. These developments—symbolism, groundline,...

Roman Republic and Empire

Roman Republic and Empire   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as status symbols and as valuable tools for self-promotion. In the 2nd and 1st centuries bc the rise of acute class consciousness and unrestrained individualism caused a series of social disruptions. The dislocation of small farmers from their land led to uprisings followed by agrarian reforms. The revolt of Rome’s Italian allies in the Social War ( 91–87 bc ) culminated with the enfranchisement of the entire peninsula. During these agitations, individuals grappled for personal power: governors exploited provinces; generals acted as warlords with private...

Black Aesthetics

Black Aesthetics   Reference library

Paul C. Taylor and Sylvia Wynter

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,502 words

... Watts riot) and Kuzaliwa (May 19, celebrating Malcolm X’s birth) ( Van Deburg, 1992 , p. 171). Although he saw himself, in the terms of his adopted African name, as the “keeper” of the black community’s tradition, he nevertheless saw this tradition as one whose origin was in agrarian Africa, and as a tradition reinterpreted by him, rather than as the empirical one carried over in the Middle Passage slave-ships then reinvented over the centuries by lower-class popular initiatives in the Americas and in the Caribbean. As a result, although he borrowed...

History

History   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,377 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with China, leading to a great enrichment of the resources available to Iranian artists. On the social and economic level, the picture is darker. The Mongol commitment to the nomadic–pastoral traditions of Inner Asia discouraged efforts to restore the infrastructure of urban and agrarian life, damaged so severely during the decades of conquest. Moreover, the Mongols dragged in with them great numbers of Turco-Mongol tribesmen, enough to alter permanently the ethnic make-up of Iran and Anatolia and to shift vast tracts from an agricultural to a nomadic–pastoral...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...shaped stones). The new material was also used to alleviate Rome’s housing crisis. In the 2nd century bc , Rome was an overcrowded city of twisting alleys and dangerous apartment blocks, frequently threatened by fire, flooding or collapse. According to Cicero ( On the Agrarian Law II.xxxv.96) the city was ridiculed by the Capuans, whose well-planned city was on a broad, open plain. Blocks of apartments were built of sun-dried brick, but, as regulations restricted the thickness of party walls to 500 mm, they could be only one storey high ( see ...

William Christenberry

William Christenberry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1936– ).Photographer, painter, sculptor, and installation artist. Most of his work centers on themes drawn from the traditional rural South, where he grew up. His varied output includes evocative ...

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