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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Richard Crampton

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...were isolated and not effective, at least until the spring of 1944 . By that time a maximum of 18,000 partisans, organized into eleven brigades, had enlisted with the forces of the Otechestven Front (Fatherland Front), a coalition formed in 1941 of communists, left-wing Agrarians, Zvenari (an authori tarian group responsible for a coup d'état in 1934 ), and Social Democrats. Support for the Fatherland Front increased as a result of Allied bombing, the advances of the Red Army, and Soviet diplomatic pressure applied in Sofia after April 1944 ...

diplomacy

diplomacy   Reference library

Z. A. B. Zeman

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Current Version:
2003

...from London to Stalin could no longer prevent his agreement with the Germans. The New Order for Europe ( see Germany , 4) had first begun to take shape when, during the years of the economic slump, Hjalmar Schacht , Hitler's minister of finance, created the dependence of the agrarian economies in the Balkans on the Reich. Other steps towards the New Order were taken by aggressive moves, both military and diplomatic, including the annexation of Austria and the Munich agreement . From Hitler's point of view, these were mere frontier rectifications, intended...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings (1860–1925)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...William Jennings ( 1860–1925 ), politician and secretary of state. Reared in Illinois, Bryan attended Illinois College and Chicago's Union College of Law. In 1887 he moved to Nebraska, entering Democratic politics as a champion of agrarian reform. Elected to Congress in 1890 , defeated in a Senate bid four years later, he won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1896 but lost to Republican William McKinley . He ran again in 1900 and 1908 —both times unsuccessfully. Having supported Woodrow Wilson in 1912 , Bryan became his secretary of...

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–06)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Current Version:
2004

...what is now the northwest United States. The Louisiana Purchase later the same year altered the character of the planned expedition from an exploration of French territory to a first glimpse of lands that, in the view of many contemporaries, were essential to maintaining the agrarian, republican character of the nation. The party of nearly thirty men—including Lewis and Clark, three sergeants, twenty‐two enlisted men, volunteers, interpreters, and Clark's slave—departed St. Louis in May 1804 heading up the Missouri River. They wintered at the present site...

hoplites

hoplites   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...service, comprised little more than half the adult population of their city states. Pitched and near ritual infantry collisions during the day and in summer reflected their own parochial interests in keeping warfare amateurish, uncomplicated, and thus non-disruptive to the agrarian population at large. However, after the Graeco-Persian wars , with the rise of the maritime Athenian empire of the 5th century bc , the limitations of hoplite warfare in an increasingly Mediterranean-wide theatre of operations soon became apparent to the Greeks. Fighting on...

Huns

Huns   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...for propaganda purposes. Yet surprisingly little is known for certain about a people whose natural habitat was the Asian steppe, impacting on China, India, and Persia, and whose supremacy in Europe lasted barely a century. Steppe nomads had always been a threat to the settled agrarian societies. The Romans had been aware of the Huns at least as early as ad 200 , when the geographer Pliny describes them; but it was not until the late 4th century that they had an impact on the empire. In the early 370s, Hunnic attacks on the previously all-conquering Goths ...

Roman civil war

Roman civil war (49–30 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Current Version:
2004

...surviving political heirs, Octavian and Mark Antony , to decide who should be emperor. These aristocratic struggles were possible because, for many thousands of Italians, service in the army of one or other of the military dynasts was very greatly more profitable than agrarian pursuits. Ominously, in the Roman army there was now more to be gained through loyalty to individual generals than to the state. The foundation for civil war was laid with the formation of the unofficial first Triumvirate in 60 bc , in which Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus...

Social and Civil Wars

Social and Civil Wars (91–82 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Current Version:
2004

...and defeating any armies sent to confront him. The Samnites maintained a determined resistance, but the result of the war was no longer in doubt and the last strongholds were gradually mopped up. The cost of the war had been massive in terms of human losses and damage to the agrarian prosperity of much of Italy. Sulla gained considerable prestige through his campaigns against the Italians and easily secured the consulship for 88 , and command in the war against Mithridates of Pontus . A keen rivalry then developed between Sulla and Marius, the latter...

rations

rations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of military personnel, and the search for the ideal combination of durability, portability, and nutritional value will continue. Andrew Haughton Lazenby, J. F. , ‘Logistics in Classical Greek Warfare’, War In History , 1/1 (Mar. 1994). Offer, Avner , The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation (Oxford, 1989). Wiley, Bell I. , The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (Baton Rouge, La.,...

Colonial Rebellions and Armed Civil Unrest

Colonial Rebellions and Armed Civil Unrest (1607–1775)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., 1977. Edward Countryman , A People in Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760–1790 , 1981. A. Roger Ekirch , “Poor Carolina”: Politics and Society in Colonial North Carolina, 1729–1776 , 1981. Thomas L. Purvis , Origins and Patterns of Agrarian Unrest in New Jersey, 1735–1754, William and Mary Quarterly , 39 (1982), pp. 600–27. Rachel Klein , Unification of a Slave State: The Rise of a Planter Class in the South Carolina Backcountry, 1760–1808 , 1990. Michael Bellesiles , Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the...

Vikings

Vikings   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... berserkir and ulfhe ð nir , who fought unprotected except by bear- or wolf-skin respectively, without regard for personal safety. Impressive though these specialists were, the majority of Vikings were worshippers of Þórr (Thor) whose cult centred round the weather and the agrarian cycle. The irascible, red-bearded giant-killer protected men and their livelihoods against the savage elements of the northern winter; his hammer, Mjolnir , was a popular amulet and continued even into the period of contact with Christian belief. In time, Vikings gained...

North-West Europe campaign

North-West Europe campaign (1944–5)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,600 words
Illustration(s):
1

...lie with the Allies' formula of unconditional surrender. The Germans, Nazis or not, knew very well what unconditional surrender to them had meant for other peoples, and could only assume the worst. US Treasury Secretary Morgenthau seriously proposed reducing Germany to a purely agrarian economy post-war, while the Soviets did, of course, do precisely that to the area they occupied. Cornered rats fight viciously. This, then, was what Eisenhower and his subordinates had to deal with. The element of good luck came from the fact that like many gamblers, Hitler...

Arms Industry and Trade

Arms Industry and Trade   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...about the arms industry and trade in Europe during the Early Middle Ages, even though weapons were of course widely used by the warrior tribes of the Migration Period and in the various kingdoms they established after their settlement. Early Medieval Period (c. 500–1000). In the agrarian civilization of those times, the manufacture of artifacts, whether domestic or military, was usually carried out locally in the landed estates where magnates resided and also in the few cities and urban sites that had retained (or regained) some economic activities after the...

Conscription

Conscription   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...A civilian‐led “Preparedness” movement helped persuade many Americans that national compulsion was more equitable and efficient than local voluntarism for an industrial society to raise a mass army. President Woodrow Wilson overcame considerable opposition—particularly from agrarian isolationists and ethnic and ideological opponents of U.S. involvement—to obtain a temporary wartime, national, selective draft. The Selective Service Act of 1917 prohibited enlistment bounties and hiring substitutes but authorized deferments on the grounds of dependency or...

Civil Liberties and War

Civil Liberties and War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of mail or any other kind of communication with foreign countries and gave the Postmaster General almost absolute censorship power over the American foreign‐language press. Included also was a Sedition Act, 1918 , which sought to repress anarchists, socialists, pacifists, agrarian radicals, and especially the Non‐Partisan League, which had taken over North Dakota at the time. The Alien Act of 1918 empowered the government to deport “any alien who, at the time of entering the United States was found to have been a member of an anarchist organization.”...

Strategy

Strategy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...or long-term, strategy did not only involve military matters: other important components were also involved. Grand strategy was not primarily about winning pitched battles, taking fortresses by storm or siege, or even winning or losing during a period of open hostilities. In an agrarian society, as the medieval one was, grand strategy was about how the polity developed the complex of its resources, including military resources, in order either to dominate both new territories and its own inhabitants or, lacking that, to create an effective defense against an...

Civil War (1861–65)

Civil War (1861–65)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...reforms such as public education aimed at promoting social improvement, the free and slave states were set apart far more significantly by the mid‐nineteenth century than at the birth of the Union. The North was growing and evolving at a more rapid pace than the predominantly agrarian South. Most ominously for slaveholders, a northern majority was forming that viewed slavery as a moral wrong that should be set on the road to extinction. Northerners also now saw slavery as a barbaric relic from the past, a barrier to secular and Christian progress that...

Switzerland

Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,200 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from the country (10.6 percent versus 89.4 percent). The high numbers of soldiers from the mountain regions relates to economic developments of the late medieval period. Specialization in cattle and dairy production for export required significantly less labor than a grain-based agrarian economy. Young, unmarried men in particular had to find new livelihoods in military service. Despite the success of the confederated military forces in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in various campaigns and battles, their conduct of war reveals numerous deficiencies....

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of naval manpower (the demands of military seamanship being, in this era, little different from those of maritime commerce); and a system of state finance tailored to ensure that the proceeds of Britain's commercial economy would be available to support the king's ships. The agrarian economies of the European Continent, and the mature technologies of naval warfare in the age of sail, offered scant leverage against such advantages. In a tactical environment so stable that a well‐maintained warship had a useful fighting life of half a century, the idea of a...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...agrarian crisis that formed the backdrop to the political crises of Edward II’s reign. In the British manifestation of the great European famine of 1315 to 1318 , torrential rains ruined successive harvests, and this was followed by drought and murrains of cattle and sheep. In the north of England the countryside was debilitated by long-range Scottish raids that devastated the border counties and destroyed the heartlands of Yorkshire and Lancashire. There is evidence of recovery from those catastrophes, however, for the simplicity of the medieval agrarian...

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