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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Religious Agrarianism

Religious Agrarianism   Reference library

Todd LeVasseur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...religious agrarianism is emerging as part of the greening of religion. By fusing ecological agrarian values and ethics into existing religious cosmologies, religious agrarians are renewing and reinterpreting their traditions to make them relevant to modern-day sustainable food concerns. Religious agrarians find evidence and inspiration in their own traditions to engage in sustainable farming, yet they are conversant and knowledgeable about many of the same issues of concern that motivate ecological agrarians. Therefore, religious agrarianism is a mix of...

Lard and Shortening

Lard and Shortening   Reference library

Michael Krondl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and cakes and even as a dressing for vegetables. Before the advent of refrigeration, most of the nation's pork was salted and the fattier parts were used for flavoring stuffings as well as stews. Bacon, and the drippings that it would yield, were a prized ingredient. In this agrarian society, lard was rendered at home and kept in the cool confines of the aptly named larder successfully for many months. The crisp crust that lard produces in frying was particularly appreciated in the South where, it has been suggested, black cooks adapted west African frying...

Downing, Andrew Jackson

Downing, Andrew Jackson   Reference library

Anne Mendelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and pomegranates as well as citrus fruits). Downing also treats currants, gooseberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, and melons (“the richest and most luscious of all herbaceous fruits”). Bibliography Mendelson, Anne . “The Decline of the Apple.” In The New Agrarianism: Land, Culture, and the Community of Life , edited by Eric T. Freyfogle , pp. 111–128. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2001. Schuyler, David . Apostle of Taste: Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815–1852 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1996. Anne...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings (1860–1925)   Reference library

H. Wayne Morgan and Christopher McKnight Nichols

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Bryan won the Democratic Party's 1896 presidential nomination after delivering his electrifying Cross of Gold speech at the party convention in Chicago. The Populist Party also nominated him, and he ran on a platform endorsing free silver and other reforms. He personified the agrarian values of individualism, equality, and Protestant morality in an urban-industrial era of deepening class and ethnic divisions. His opposition to corporate power mirrored the spirit of discontent pulsing through the nation's heartland. When he failed to rally the urban working...

Alliance for Progress

Alliance for Progress   Reference library

Stephen G. Rabe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a year. This economic growth, it was hoped, would facilitate significant improvements in employment and in infant mortality, life expectancy, and literacy rates. In agreeing to the alliance, Latin American leaders pledged to work for equality and social justice by promoting agrarian reform and progressive income taxes. The Kennedy administration developed this so-called Marshall Plan for Latin America because it judged the region susceptible to social revolution and Communism. Fidel Castro had transformed the Cuban Revolution into a strident anti-American...

Hebei Province

Hebei Province (2007)   Reference library

Bent NIELSEN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...rebuilt. Bent NIELSEN Further Reading Kirk, M. (Ed.). (2009). China by numbers 2009 . Hong Kong: China Economic Review Publishing. Li Zongmin . (1993). Changes in the role of rural women under the household responsibility system: A case study of the impact of agrarian reform and rural industrialization in Dongyao Village, Hebei Province, north China . Madison, WI: Land Tenure Center. Myers, R. H. (1970). The Chinese peasant economy: Agricultural development in Hopei and Shantung, 1890–1949 . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Pomeranz...

Iron Rice Bowl

Iron Rice Bowl   Reference library

André LaLIBERTÉ

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of impoverished regions access to social services was merely theoretical. In addition, the advantages that should accrue from the Iron Rice Bowl did not amount to much during the famine of the Great Leap Forward ( 1958–1960 ) 大跃进 ‎, Mao’s plan to turn China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers into a modern, industrialized communist society, or the chaos of the Cultural Revolution ( 1966–1976 ). Yet, because workers made decisions in their councils on the benefits they should enjoy—often regardless of the economic performance of...

Paine, Thomas

Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)   Reference library

Dani Holtz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...next two years, Paine wrote prolifically: he argued for secularization in Age of Reason ( 1794 and 1795 ); in 1795 , he called for the French Convention to return to universal suffrage in his Dissertation on First Principles of Government ; he proposed an estate tax in Agrarian Justice ( 1795 ) to rectify the unnatural inequity generated by land distribution; and his 1796 Decline and the Fall of the British System of Finance predicted that the Bank of England would suspend payments to continue funding Britain's international wars (a prognosis...

Kellogg, Frank B.

Kellogg, Frank B. (1856–1937)   Reference library

Robert David Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...squeezed between two extremes. Neither Wilson nor his chief Republican opponent, the Massachusetts senator Henry Cabot Lodge , desired compromise; the treaty went down to defeat. Kellogg's political career, meanwhile, appeared to come to an abrupt end in 1922 . Amid widespread agrarian unrest and the implosion of the state's Democratic Party, a new third party emerged in Minnesota. To challenge Kellogg, the Farmer-Labor Party nominated a Norwegian American dentist, Henrik Shipstead , who portrayed the incumbent as a tool of corporate interests and ousted him...

Cleveland, Grover

Cleveland, Grover (1837–1908)   Reference library

R. Hal Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the late nineteenth century. Following the Democratic philosophy of states’ rights and limited government, he devoted himself principally to maintaining the gold standard. His actions during the depression of the 1890s split the Democratic Party, heightened the influence of its agrarian wing, and strengthened the Republican Party. During his second tenure in office, Cleveland demonstrated that a noninterventionist position could be effectively deployed in foreign policy. Six weeks before Cleveland took office for the second time, American businessmen in...

Hundred Schools of Thought

Hundred Schools of Thought   Reference library

James D. SELLMANN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...works no longer exist, given that Mengzi debated the followers of Xu Xing (c. late fourth century bce ), the Agriculturists were a force to be reckoned with. They advocated a well-rounded agrarian philosophy, dealing with the best means for planting, weeding, and harvesting; promoting cottage industry and price controls; and organizing people in small agrarian work forces. Two of their lasting contributions to the economics of agriculture are the ever-ready granary system and the principle of acting (buying/selling) at the right time. Diplomats The Diplomats...

Water Conservation

Water Conservation   Reference library

Ruth MOSTERN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...(Yellow) River is the most sediment laden waterway in the world, carrying an average 1.6 billion tons of silt annually. It is an amount so great that the coastal plain at its mouth grew at a rate of 6 square kilometers per year by the 1200s and even more rapidly thereafter. Agrarian civilization emerged in the fertile loess sediment that the Huang River deposited in north China, and along with it came efforts to confine the river to a predictable course. Nevertheless, its levees, the earthen embankments that paralleled the river’s course, failed more than...

Kitchen Gardening

Kitchen Gardening   Reference library

Elyse Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...rice, sorghum, eggplant, and tomatoes. Over time, these foods became integral parts of the American diet while contributing to the development of a distinct cuisine. The Good Life. The importance of kitchen gardening declined in the later nineteenth century as the dominant agrarian way of life gave way to rapid urbanization. Consequently, for the first time in U.S. history, the population began buying produce from retail grocers rather than cultivating it themselves. Many people left the cities for the newly created post–Civil War suburbs, seeking relief...

Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa   Reference library

Tonya Hopkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...( karamu ). In the early twenty-first century Kwanzaa was embraced by an estimated 28 million people of African descent around the globe honoring a common heritage, and its popularity continues to grow. Kwanzaa and Harvest. The concept of Kwanzaa is linked to sustenance and agrarian rites, as it is a creative synthesis of the many African harvest rituals practiced across the continent during ancient and modern times. At these “first fruits celebrations” people come together to harvest crops ( mazao ) of fruits, vegetables, and other produce and to give...

Cafeterias

Cafeterias   Reference library

Ruth Tobias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Although it was christened with the Spanish word for “coffee shop,” it is rather a buffet—a self-service operation on a relatively large scale. Efficient and economical, it provided a solution to various logistical problems arising in the transition between a primarily agrarian and an essentially urban-industrial society: as fewer and fewer people worked on either their own land or their own time, and scheduled lunch breaks made midday commutes home impractical, the need for eateries that were conveniently located within commercial districts and...

Cooperatives

Cooperatives   Reference library

Elyse Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...groceries. Origins of the Cooperative Movement. The modern consumer cooperative originated in nineteenth-century Great Britain. It was a response to the depressed economic conditions brought about by the Industrial Revolution, which effectively did away with the prevailing rural agrarian way of life in England. The depression of the 1840s also caused widespread unemployment and crushing poverty, especially in many newly industrialized urban areas. Corrupt company stores controlled most of the food supply, selling contaminated food at inflated prices. Cooperative...

Wineries

Wineries   Reference library

Tonya Hopkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and wine-making technology as well as in growing marketing budgets to assist with the increasingly competitive global wine market. American wineries are a key part of state and county tourism, offering increasingly popular packages of “agri-tourism” for those seeking agrarian landscape getaways. Promoting destination wineries, many convention and visitors bureaus link prospective visitors to wineries and local attractions like harvest festivals and jazz concerts. Many American vintners compete to open the most lavish hospitality centers, complete...

State, U.S. Department of

State, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Robert David Johnson and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...issues, secretaries of state James G. Blaine ( 1881 , 1889–1892 ), John Hay ( 1898–1905 ), and Elihu Root ( 1905–1909 ) skillfully promoted the nation's turn-of-the-century emergence as a world power. President Woodrow Wilson pleased the Democratic Party's agrarian wing by appointing William Jennings Bryan as secretary of state in 1913 , but the pacifist Bryan, unhappy over the belligerence of Wilson's protests of German U-boat attacks, resigned in 1915 . His successor, Robert Lansing , proved ineffectual because Wilson, advised by ...

Foreign Aid

Foreign Aid   Reference library

Nathan Godfried and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...European economies and reintegrate them into the capitalist world economy while creating a unified economic bloc against the Soviet Union's influence. The Point Four Program, created by the Act for International Development ( 1950 ), proposed that American technical experts help agrarian nations to stimulate their domestic economies—especially the export of selected crops and raw materials—enhance their ability to purchase American exports, attract private foreign capital, and become integrated into the global economy. Such economic growth supposedly would build...

Qianzhuang

Qianzhuang   Reference library

JI Zhaojin

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...commercial banking functions, including accepting deposits, granting loans, and engaging in the settlement of international trade. Qianzhuang were originally family-based or established through partnerships among family members and friends. With roots in a long standing agrarian economic society and a Confucian cultural background, qianzhuang emphasized the ethics of family values; a qianzhuang owner or a manager (in the corporate partnership) acted like a father overseeing all internal business and devising strategies to deal with external affairs....

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