View:

Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarian

agrarian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
43 words

... Relating to farmland and its economy, the cultivation of land or land tenure. For example, the agrarian revolution in the UK took place in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, which saw significant improvements in productivity and agricultural reform. See also agriculture...

agrarian parties

agrarian parties   Quick reference

Wyn Grant

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
294 words

... parties Parties representing farmers have been a significant feature of many Western political systems, but are now declining in importance. As urbanization and industrialization reduce the share of the rural population in the electorate, agrarian parties have found it more difficult to sustain an electoral base, and a number have either faded away, or have converted themselves into parties with a more general electoral appeal. The interests of farmers may be more effectively represented by national farmers’ organizations with close links with the...

Agrarian Question, The

Agrarian Question, The   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
329 words

... Question, The An ongoing debate about the relationship between peasant agriculture and capitalist economic development. Although the issue was raised by Marx and Engels, the Agrarian Question can best be traced back to Karl Kautsky in a book of that name published in 1899 in Germany. Written in the context of a Europe-wide rural and agrarian crisis and falling farm incomes, Kautsky was concerned with three main problems: what was the impact of capitalism on small-scale or family farming?; how important was agriculture to capitalist development in...

Agrarianism

Agrarianism   Reference library

Norman WIRZBA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,007 words

...those who were not farmers themselves lived in close, sympathetic proximity with agricultural realities and requirements. What agrarian life affords—though hardly guarantees—is the practical and intimate insight that insofar as we eat, breathe, and drink we also need to care for the geo-bio-chemical sources that feed us. To degrade, exhaust, or destroy one’s land or livestock is also to put one’s own life at risk. Agrarian life, which is not to be confused with the extractive and profiteering ethos of agribusiness, is an education that trains people in...

agrarianism

agrarianism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
36 words

... Agrarian societies are those that combine horticulture and animal husbandry in systems of farming. Agrarianism also refers to the romanticization of the rural farm as the ideal place for family life. See also rural sociology...

agrarian parties

agrarian parties  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Parties representing farmers have been a significant feature of many Western political systems, but are now declining in importance. As urbanization and industrialization reduce the share of the ...
Southern Agrarians

Southern Agrarians   Reference library

Ted Atkinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Agrarians Agrarianism in the U.S. South was integral to the formation of regional and national ideals and identities, as evinced by Thomas Jefferson 's Notes on Virginia ( 1787 ). Influence and ethos form the connective tissue between Jefferson and the Southern Agrarians, a cohort of intellectuals emergent in the latter half of the 1920s at Vanderbilt University after The Fugitive literary magazine folded. The triumvirate of John Crowe Ransom , Allen Tate , and Donald Davidson turned from that enterprise, which involved channeling literary...

Religious Agrarianism

Religious Agrarianism   Reference library

Todd LeVasseur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...religious agrarianism is emerging as part of the greening of religion. By fusing ecological agrarian values and ethics into existing religious cosmologies, religious agrarians are renewing and reinterpreting their traditions to make them relevant to modern-day sustainable food concerns. Religious agrarians find evidence and inspiration in their own traditions to engage in sustainable farming, yet they are conversant and knowledgeable about many of the same issues of concern that motivate ecological agrarians. Therefore, religious agrarianism is a mix of...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Richard Crampton

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...were isolated and not effective, at least until the spring of 1944 . By that time a maximum of 18,000 partisans, organized into eleven brigades, had enlisted with the forces of the Otechestven Front (Fatherland Front), a coalition formed in 1941 of communists, left-wing Agrarians, Zvenari (an authori tarian group responsible for a coup d'état in 1934 ), and Social Democrats. Support for the Fatherland Front increased as a result of Allied bombing, the advances of the Red Army, and Soviet diplomatic pressure applied in Sofia after April 1944 ...

diplomacy

diplomacy   Reference library

Z. A. B. Zeman

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...from London to Stalin could no longer prevent his agreement with the Germans. The New Order for Europe ( see Germany , 4) had first begun to take shape when, during the years of the economic slump, Hjalmar Schacht , Hitler's minister of finance, created the dependence of the agrarian economies in the Balkans on the Reich. Other steps towards the New Order were taken by aggressive moves, both military and diplomatic, including the annexation of Austria and the Munich agreement . From Hitler's point of view, these were mere frontier rectifications, intended...

Sandinismo

Sandinismo (Spanish)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gangs

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Law
Length:
113 words

...Front for National Liberation in Nicaragua. It combines Marxism, nationalist, and anti-imperialist ideology and applies it to the view of the country’s social, political, and economic systems. It has focused on poverty, inequality, enfranchising the rural and urban poor, agrarian reform, health care, housing, and reforming the country’s institutions. Gang members in Nicaragua have said that community pride is a form of Sandinismo . One way they express this pride is by fighting similar gangs of youth from other neighbourhoods. Further reading: S. Jensen...

monoculture

monoculture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A farming system given over exclusively to a single product. Writing on globalization and agrarian change in the Pacific Islands, Murray (2001) J. Rural Studs 17 lists some disadvantages of monoculture: ‘increasing pollution, soil degradation and ground water depletion; further concentrating economic power, property ownership and social inequalities; and contributing to urbanization as displaced small growers migrate to towns and cities. Moreover, the Tongan economy has been left more vulnerable to global economic fluctuations.’ However,...

Black, Hugo

Black, Hugo   Reference library

Jeffrey D. Hockett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
294 words

...that the First Amendment protects virtually all forms of speech and press, including obscenity, libel, and seditious utterances, which must be protected from government censorship. This constitutional absolutism was rooted in his affinity for Populism, the nineteenth-century agrarian movement (especially strong in Alabama ) that emphasized the need to combat government’s tendency to serve powerful interests at the expense of the less fortunate. [ See also Bill of Rights ; Brown v. Board of Education ; Civil Liberties ; Japanese American Internment ; ...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings   Reference library

H. Wayne Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
323 words

... won the Democratic Party’s 1896 presidential nomination after delivering his electrifying Cross of Gold speech at the party convention in Chicago . The Populist Party also nominated him, and he ran on a platform endorsing free silver and other reforms. He personified the agrarian values of individualism, equality, and Protestant morality in an urban-industrial era of deepening class and ethnic divisions. His opposition to corporate power mirrored the spirit of discontent pulsing through the nation’s heartland, but he failed to rally the urban working...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings (1860–1925)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...William Jennings ( 1860–1925 ), politician and secretary of state. Reared in Illinois, Bryan attended Illinois College and Chicago's Union College of Law. In 1887 he moved to Nebraska, entering Democratic politics as a champion of agrarian reform. Elected to Congress in 1890 , defeated in a Senate bid four years later, he won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1896 but lost to Republican William McKinley . He ran again in 1900 and 1908 —both times unsuccessfully. Having supported Woodrow Wilson in 1912 , Bryan became his secretary of...

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–06)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...what is now the northwest United States. The Louisiana Purchase later the same year altered the character of the planned expedition from an exploration of French territory to a first glimpse of lands that, in the view of many contemporaries, were essential to maintaining the agrarian, republican character of the nation. The party of nearly thirty men—including Lewis and Clark, three sergeants, twenty‐two enlisted men, volunteers, interpreters, and Clark's slave—departed St. Louis in May 1804 heading up the Missouri River. They wintered at the present site...

industrialization

industrialization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The development of manufacturing industry from a predominantly agrarian society. Characteristic features of industrialization include the application of scientific methods to solving problems; mechanization and a factory system; the division of labour; the increased geographical/social mobility of the labour force; and capital deepening ( Atack et al. (2005) J. Econ. Hist. 58, 3 ). These are also features of capitalism , and capitalism is not the same thing as industrialization. ‘Industrialization is widely seen as the most important social...

hoplites

hoplites   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...service, comprised little more than half the adult population of their city states. Pitched and near ritual infantry collisions during the day and in summer reflected their own parochial interests in keeping warfare amateurish, uncomplicated, and thus non-disruptive to the agrarian population at large. However, after the Graeco-Persian wars , with the rise of the maritime Athenian empire of the 5th century bc , the limitations of hoplite warfare in an increasingly Mediterranean-wide theatre of operations soon became apparent to the Greeks. Fighting on...

green revolution

green revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to lower food prices globally. Average caloric intake has risen as a result of lower food prices—with corresponding gains in health and life’ ( Evenson and Gollin (2003) Science 300 , 5620 ). ‘In order for an African Green Revolution to happen, it is recommended that the agrarian communities and regions reform their land ownership and land tenure from traditional and/or customary laws, in order to enable the ordinary or poor farmers to access and use the land with ease. The farmers need secure and stable tenancy on the land for them to make the necessary...

Lard and Shortening

Lard and Shortening   Reference library

Michael Krondl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and cakes and even as a dressing for vegetables. Before the advent of refrigeration, most of the nation's pork was salted and the fattier parts were used for flavoring stuffings as well as stews. Bacon, and the drippings that it would yield, were a prized ingredient. In this agrarian society, lard was rendered at home and kept in the cool confines of the aptly named larder successfully for many months. The crisp crust that lard produces in frying was particularly appreciated in the South where, it has been suggested, black cooks adapted west African frying...

View: