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Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Forestry Technology and Lumbering

Forestry Technology and Lumbering   Reference library

Thomas R. Cox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...change over the years. Continental Europe provided much of the initial technology used in North America. Resistance to labor-saving innovations out of fear of job loss had kept English production simple and labor intensive; tools were inefficient, having been developed for agrarian use, not lumbering. Living under labor-short conditions, Americans drew upon Dutch, German, Polish, Danish, and Scandinavian sources for better means of production. Booms for collecting and holding logs, water-powered reciprocal saws, and the rafting of logs and lumber all had...

Birth Control and Family Planning

Birth Control and Family Planning   Reference library

Susan Hanket Brandt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...a pregnancy prior to “quickening,” the perception of fetal movements in the second trimester of pregnancy. In the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, most Euro-Americans viewed large families positively because children provided an economic safety net and laborers in an agrarian and artisanal economy. However, fertility rates began to decline in free populations in the late eighteenth century. Starting with the urban middle classes, women redefined the American Revolutionary rhetoric of equality, rationality, and self-control and invented a new...

Food Processing

Food Processing   Reference library

Gabriella M. Petrick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1940. DuPuis, E. Melanie . Nature’s Perfect Food: How Milk Became America’s Drink . New York: New York University Press, 2002. Goodwin, Lorine Swainston . The Pure Food, Drink, and Drug Crusaders, 1879–1914 . Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 1999. Guthman, Julie . Agrarian Dreams: The Paradox of Organic Farming in California . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Hamilton, Shane . Trucking Country: The Road to America’s Wal-Mart Economy . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008. Horowitz, Roger . Putting Meat on the American...

law and technology

law and technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and technology . Both law and technology have been essential to the evolution of society. From the farm-machinery and property-law reforms that allowed the agrarian revolution to flourish to the information technologies and intellectual property laws that allow the modern information and biotechnological revolutions to advance, both law and technology have served critical social roles. This essay examines two areas in which the law and technology interact in ways that influence each other's impacts on society: information technology ( IT ) and...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Manufacturing In one of the most fundamental feedbacks in the modern world, new technological knowledge had powerful economic outcomes that in turn fostered technological change. Whole economies changed in the process. Between 1790 and 1929 , the largely agrarian economy of the United States evolved to become the world’s leading industrial power. Manufacturing led the way, as the handicrafts employing a few percent of the labor force in 1790 gave way to a factory-dominated sector employing a quarter of the labor force and affecting the whole...

technology in history

technology in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...mainly in Vienna. He succeeded in the clandestine purchasing of English textile machine drawings and hired the necessary experts to reproduce similar machinery ( 1800–1801 ). Poland re-emerged as an independent state at the end of World War I in 1918 . The country had mainly agrarian production; the only developed heavy industry was mining. Many Polish engineers left their homeland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and were recognized for their work while abroad. Wladyslaw Kluger and Ernest Malinowski built channels, roads, and railways in Peru....

cold and cryonics

cold and cryonics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,068 words

...in chemical factories, 15 in sugar refining, 15 in candle making, the rest for other purposes. In 1911 the Institut International du Froid was founded in Paris to regulate the industry and to formulate directions of further research on cold. The preservation and transport of agrarian, fish, and dairy products, the standardization of the specifications for home refrigerators, the construction of trains and ships with large refrigerators, the installation of special refrigerators in mortuaries and slaughterhouses, the building of new hotels with air cooling...

Human ecology

Human ecology   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,236 words

...climate, and to model the dynamics of the system on a computer. Indeed such skills were needed, fully to interpret what the Tiwanakans accomplished empirically. Neither the Incas who came to power later, nor the Spanish colonial settlers who displaced the Incas, could match the agrarian productivity of the Tiwanakans. When international agricultural experts arrived, in the 1950s and after, to counsel the Bolivians on modern techniques, they had nothing to offer for that part of the Altiplano that was not hopelessly expensive. For almost 1000 years the land was...

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