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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarian

agrarian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Relating to agriculture or farming...

agrarian civilization

agrarian civilization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... civilization A society that depends on an agricultural economy , and which is therefore settled, as opposed to hunter‐gathering...

agrarian

agrarian  

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.
Agrarianism

Agrarianism   Reference library

Norman WIRZBA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,007 words

...those who were not farmers themselves lived in close, sympathetic proximity with agricultural realities and requirements. What agrarian life affords—though hardly guarantees—is the practical and intimate insight that insofar as we eat, breathe, and drink we also need to care for the geo-bio-chemical sources that feed us. To degrade, exhaust, or destroy one’s land or livestock is also to put one’s own life at risk. Agrarian life, which is not to be confused with the extractive and profiteering ethos of agribusiness, is an education that trains people in...

agrarian civilization

agrarian civilization  

A society that depends on an agricultural economy, and which is therefore settled, as opposed to hunter‐gathering.
monoculture

monoculture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A farming system given over exclusively to a single product. Writing on globalization and agrarian change in the Pacific Islands, Murray (2001) J. Rural Studs 17 lists some disadvantages of monoculture: ‘increasing pollution, soil degradation and ground water depletion; further concentrating economic power, property ownership and social inequalities; and contributing to urbanization as displaced small growers migrate to towns and cities. Moreover, the Tongan economy has been left more vulnerable to global economic fluctuations.’ However,...

industrialization

industrialization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The development of manufacturing industry from a predominantly agrarian society. Characteristic features of industrialization include the application of scientific methods to solving problems; mechanization and a factory system; the division of labour; the increased geographical/social mobility of the labour force; and capital deepening ( Atack et al. (2005) J. Econ. Hist. 58, 3 ). These are also features of capitalism , and capitalism is not the same thing as industrialization. ‘Industrialization is widely seen as the most important social...

green revolution

green revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to lower food prices globally. Average caloric intake has risen as a result of lower food prices—with corresponding gains in health and life’ ( Evenson and Gollin (2003) Science 300 , 5620 ). ‘In order for an African Green Revolution to happen, it is recommended that the agrarian communities and regions reform their land ownership and land tenure from traditional and/or customary laws, in order to enable the ordinary or poor farmers to access and use the land with ease. The farmers need secure and stable tenancy on the land for them to make the necessary...

Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse Gases   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...This is produced for use as an insulator in various kinds of electrical equipment. This, together with the previous two man-made chemical categories, despite their very high GWP values, contribute roughly 2% of the world's greenhouse gas impact. Emissions and Economic Level In agrarian economies with little heavy industry or electrical generation, methane is often the predominant greenhouse gas. In such countries, land-use change and forestry practice ( LUCF ) such as tropical deforestation account for a large share of emissions. In more industrial...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...people in the world near the end of the twentieth century. Domestication of a relatively few of the available mammalian species initially occurred in conjunction with climatic, cultural, and societal changes following the end of the last ice age, the Wisconsin deglaciation. Agrarian-based communities developed independently around the world, and generic animal husbandry practices became common. [See Agriculture and Agricultural Land .] Today, despite tremendous technological advances in genetics (such as cloning), physiological manipulations (such as...

Globalization and the Environment

Globalization and the Environment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...primarily in the Asia-Pacific region but also in South America, have transformed themselves from primarily agrarian to primarily industrial countries over the same period. This has had the effect of making generalizations like “third world countries” and “developing countries” less meaningful; an industrializing country such as South Korea has far more in common economically with the United States than it does with countries that remain agrarian and poor. Globalization and Economic Integration Several other factors contribute to contemporary globalization....

Integrated Assessment

Integrated Assessment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...For example: • Climate change will impact us at a local level. However, we are unable to project future local climate change with sufficient confidence to assess whether we are going to be better or worse off. • Impacts of climate change are believed to be most severe in agrarian societies. However, we are particularly ignorant of their state and vulnerability in the distant future. • Impacts of climate change on unmanaged ecosystems are believed to dominate all others in our sense of well-being and happiness. However, we know that aesthetics are labile...

Amazonia, Deforestation Of

Amazonia, Deforestation Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,326 words
Illustration(s):
2

...profit out of land speculation, changing of land titling procedures to cease recognizing deforestation for cattle pasture as a benfeitoria (“improvement”), removal of remaining subsidies, reinforcement of procedures for Environmental Impact Reports (RIMAs), implementation of agrarian reform both in Amazonia and in the source areas of migrants, and provision of alternative employment in both rural and urban areas (Fearnside, 1989). Although small farmers account for only 30 percent of the deforestation activity, the intensity of deforestation within the area...

Amazonia and Deforestation

Amazonia and Deforestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,747 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to take the profit out of land speculation, changing land-titling procedures to cease recognizing deforestation for cattle pasture as an “improvement” ( benfeitoria ), removing remaining subsidies, reinforcing procedures for Environmental Impact Reports (RIMAs), carrying out agrarian reform both in Amazonia and in the source areas of migrants, and offering alternative employment both in rural and in urban areas. Although small farmers account for only about 30% of the deforestation, the intensity of deforestation within the area they occupy is greater than...

Global Economy

Global Economy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,462 words
Illustration(s):
1

...region but to a lesser extent in South America as well, have transformed themselves from primarily agrarian to primarily industrial countries over the same period. This has had the effect of making generalizations like “third world countries” or “developing countries” to a significant degree meaningless; a newly industrializing country such as South Korea has far more in common economically with the United States than it does with countries that remain agrarian and poor (see Figure 1). Global Economy. Figure 1. Gross National Product Per Capita, 1997.A...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,017 words
Illustration(s):
1

...testa reflects selection for faster germination. Maize arrived from Mesoamerica much later, approximately 800 years ago. History of Explanation Many societies have stories to explain the beginning of agriculture. Harlan ( 1995 ) presents a series of origin myths from various agrarian societies. Typically, a divine being (Isis in Egypt; Demeter in Greece; a child of the Sun, the first Inca, in the Andes; Oannes in Mesopotamia) brings agriculture to the local, impoverished savages along with a system of laws, religious practices, and the arts of “civilized”...

Agriculture and Agricultural Land

Agriculture and Agricultural Land   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...on the individual farmer. This last scenario assumes, of course, that the agriculturalist confronts the changing physical and economic environment as an entrepreneur alone. There are many reasons to believe, however, that this confrontation will be fought politically, with the agrarian sector seeking support and subsidies to maintain agriculture. Confronted with inadequate water and international competition, agriculturalists in the western United States and Western Europe have leveraged their political clout for public financed and subsidized irrigation and...

Human Evolution

Human Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...modes of production. As a corrective to the unilinear schemes favored by Childe and White, the American anthropologist Julian Steward ( 1902–1972 ) proposed a theory of “multilinear evolution,” according to which certain basic types of society, such as the hunting band or the agrarian civilization, tend to develop in similar ways under similar conditions, even though “few concrete aspects of culture will appear among all groups of mankind in a regular sequence.” Within biology, meanwhile, the teleological (and often Lamarckian) theories of evolution that had...

Agriculture and Agricultural Land

Agriculture and Agricultural Land   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...on the individual farmer. This last scenario assumes, of course, that the agriculturalist confronts the changing physical and economic environment as an entrepreneur alone. There are many reasons to believe, however, that this confrontation will be fought politically, with the agrarian sector seeking support and subsidies to maintain agriculture in place. Confronted with inadequate water and international competition, agriculturalists in the western United States and western Europe have leveraged their political clout for public financed and subsidized...

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict   Reference library

Courtney Plante, Johnie J. Allen, and Craig A. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Little Ice Age—a period of cooling from 1300–1850 , ushered in a number of significant cultural changes, including shorter growing seasons, changing agricultural practices, and civil war, as disruption in food production led to shortages, famines, and unrest, particularly in agrarian societies lacking the resources to cope with these crises ( Fagan, 2000 ). Rapid climate shifts in the past millennium are said to have contributed, in part, to wars across the Northern Hemisphere and in China ( Zhang et al., 2007a , 2007b ). Looking at shorter, predictable...

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