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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Egypt from Nasser to the Present

Egypt from Nasser to the Present   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,734 words

...to government statistics, all the measures involved approximately four thousand families. Indeed, the government's measures removed some obstacles to achieving social justice through agrarian reform, increased taxation, and improved social services, but the results fell far short of the regime's initial promise of a better life for the poor. The long-awaited agrarian reform law of 1952 , which limited property rights, did allow large landowners to retain much of the land they had acquired. The maximum amount of individual property was fixed at 200...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,933 words

...of internal order continued the inequalities in the countryside. Rather than implement nationwide agrarian reform, government leaders relied on peasants to colonize new territories and establish new communities with little or no state support in order to reduce the social pressures for reform. Challenges to this system periodically arose in the twentieth century; however, Colombia's landed and political elite effectively co-opted or repressed agrarian reform movements, maintaining a structure of inequality in the countryside that existed in the early...

Guatemala

Guatemala   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,080 words

...measures contemplated in the labor code, directly challenging the interests of UFCO and precipitating an irreversible conflict. But perhaps the principal determining factor for the fate of the revolution came in June 1952 , when the Guatemalan congress passed Decree 900, the Agrarian Reform Law. This established mechanisms for the expropriation of idle land from holdings of over 223 acres and its subsequent distribution to eligible recipients, principally peasants without land titles, who over time would pay for it. Much of the land affected belonged to...

Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,477 words

...Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin ruled the Soviet Union from 1929 to 1953 . During that time, he transformed the country from an agrarian nation into a twentieth-century superpower. The price of Soviet modernization was paid in human lives. Economic development was based on the ongoing transfer of resources from the rural to urban economy, leaving the peasantry, the majority of the population, depleted. The opening up of new territories, the extraction of natural resources from the far-flung regions of the Soviet Union, and the creation of an...

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Peoples   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,166 words

...in the national legal system, but just as often governments promote the transfer of communally held indigenous lands to other landholders, a process that began during the colonial period in many countries and intensified during postcolonial times. The breakup of indigenous agrarian communities in the nineteenth century was one of the factors leading to the Mexican Revolution of 1910 . Mapuche communities in southern Chile assertively oppose the concentration of their ancestral lands in private hands, a process actively promoted since the military...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,584 words

...Population estimates vary but suggest about twenty-four thousand, mostly resident in Hokkaido. Policy in the mid-nineteenth century regarded Hokkaido as an “empty land” to be colonized by Japan. A law passed in 1899 aimed to tie down the Ainu hunter-gatherers to a settled agrarian lifestyle, and it was expected that they would soon disappear into the majority Japanese population. Some communities retained a sense of identity, but their language almost disappeared. During the 1970s there emerged a notion of Ainu nationhood that accompanied demands for...

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,952 words

...Muslims to stand up to the despotic sultan. In their peaceful protests, Armenians asked a fundamental question: can a Christian be the equal of a Muslim in the Ottoman Empire? The Hamidian Era Massacres In 1891 and 1892 Armenian reformers went to Sasun to help the Armenian agrarian community organize resistance to tax extortion. The resistance led to a confrontation in which a few Kurds and Armenians were killed. Shortly thereafter, the sultan ordered nomadic Kurds to invade Sasun and the Armenian villages of the region. When, in the spring of 1894 , the...

South American Southern Cone

South American Southern Cone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,897 words

...Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, Paraguay pursued a different model of economic growth. The regime distributed government-owned lands to small and medium farmers to increase commercial farming and strengthen the control of the Colorado Party over rural areas. Traditional agrarian elites continued to make money, while the beneficiaries of the agricultural colonization program were bound to the regime. The regime promoted various development projects, including the construction of the expensive Itaipú Dam, and encouraged limited industrial and urban...

Brazil

Brazil   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,488 words

...but under his regime some rights of Brazil's working class were formally recognized by the state for the first time. A Ministry of Labor was created, and labor unions were accorded legal status. As industrialization proceeded, the working class grew. Brazil was still an agrarian society, but its cities developed, its economy became more complex, and republican ideas of equality of citizenship were promulgated. The middle class expanded, and a civil service run on meritocratic lines was created within the state apparatus. Vargas was deposed in 1945 ,...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
13,083 words

...Proletarian Cultural Revolution, during which another million people died. Overall, however, the failure of the Great Leap Forward and the resulting famine helped convince some within the party elite that socialized agriculture was an unworkable and perhaps even utopian policy. Agrarian radicalism continued, but in the wake of the famine it was tempered by a new pragmatism that stressed the absolute importance of ensuring stable and adequate food supplies. Never again would the CCP seek to radically restructure the agricultural sector or mobilize rural labor in...

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