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Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarian

agrarian   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
12 words

... XVII. f. L. agrarius , f. ager , agr- land; see ACRE , -ARIAN...

Agrarian Revolution

Agrarian Revolution   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... Revolution the transformation of British agriculture during the 18th century, characterized by the enclosure of common land and the introduction of technological innovations such as the seed drill and the rotation of...

Lughnasa

Lughnasa   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...In Irish mythology the feast of the pagan sun-god Lugh, who is said to have introduced it to commemorate his foster-mother Tailtu . It was one of the major pre-Christian festivals and was essentially an agrarian feast celebrating the harvest. Christianity took it over as lammas day . The name survives in modern Irish for the name of the month of August, Lúnasa. Brian Friel’s highly acclaimed play Dancing at Lughnasa ( 1990 ) is a tender evocation of his childhood in rural Ireland in the...

Southern English

Southern English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., cut cross the vast territory in patterns following natural boundaries and settlement routes: (1) ( Coastal ) Southern (also Lowland Southern, Plantation Southern ). Spoken along the Atlantic seaboard and westward across the lands of lower elevation with a predominantly agrarian economy once relying on slave labour. In this area, white and black speakers have traditionally shared many of its characteristics: a non-rhotic accent, a glide before /u/ in words like news and Tuesday , and the usages tote carry, carry escort, and snapbeans string...

Leveller

Leveller   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...an extreme radical dissenter in the English Civil War ( 1642–9 ), wishing to level all differences of rank, and calling for the abolition of the monarchy, social and agrarian reforms, and religious freedom; they were ultimately suppressed by Cromwell...

Young, Arthur

Young, Arthur (1741–1820)   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Arthur ( 1741–1820 ) . An English agronomist and travel writer, best known for his A Tour of Ireland ( 1780 ). He was born in London and his early publications included novels and agricultural works. He first arrived in Ireland in June 1776 and his observations of agrarian and social realities during this and a subsequent lengthy visit formed the basis of his Tour . His sympathy for peasants and condemnation of Absentee landlords , corrupt middlemen and religious intolerance did not endear him to the Ascendancy , but writers such as Maria ...

United Irishman, The

United Irishman, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Irishman, The . A Republican newspaper of extreme views published 1847–8 by John Mitchel after he broke with The Nation . It advocated armed insurrection and agrarian revolution, and carried instructions on street fighting. The paper was suppressed in 1848 and Mitchel was transported. Arthur Griffith also used the title for his weekly paper, which first appeared in March 1899 and which included contributions by Yeats and æ . In 1906 Griffith changed the name of the paper to Sinn Féin...

United Irish League

United Irish League   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Irish League . An agrarian grassroots organization founded in 1898 by William O'Brien to campaign for redistribution of large farms in the west of Ireland among small farmers. It adopted a militant position in Connacht in its early years, but soon fell under the control of the Irish Party ( John Redmond was president from 1900 ), which needed the support of large ranchers as well as small farmers, and this diluted its effectiveness. Support for the organization declined, and by 1914 it had ceased to...

Whiteboys

Whiteboys   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

.... An agrarian Secret society active 1761–5 and 1769–75 , so called because of the practice of wearing white shirts over ordinary clothes. Their main grievances were the recurring ones of enclosures, use of tillage land for stock grazing and the paying of Tithes . Legislation against the offences of burnings, killing and maiming of cattle and the occasional deaths of farmers or ‘traitors’ made all White-boy activities capital offences. The name was used generically for such protest movements right up until the Great...

Sheehy, Nicholas

Sheehy, Nicholas (1726–66)   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Nicholas ( 1726–66 ). A Catholic priest executed in Clonmel at a time of bitter agrarian conflict and protest against Tithes . He had been involved in anti-tithe protests and, despite being acquitted when indicted for these offences in Dublin, he was convicted and sentenced in Clonmel, along with three other local Catholics, although the evidence against them was flimsy. The execution of Sheehy and the other Catholics is seen as evidence of the continuing judicial repression of Catholics at a time when the severity of the Popery Laws appeared to have...

Terry Alts

Terry Alts   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Alts . An agrarian Secret society , active in the 1830s in Co. Tipperary and in the west of Ireland. It was one of many such groups active in the early 19th century and probably connected with the Whiteboys . Like Threshers, Carders , Whitefeet and Molly Maguires , their make-up and aims are difficult to determine, since their common characteristic was an almost theatrical secrecy. Their activities usually coincided with agricultural slumps and their adversaries were not so much the landlords as the growing class of tenant farmers, who were if anything...

Tithe

Tithe   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...increase, yearly arising and renewing from the profits of the lands, the stock upon lands, and the personal industry of the inhabitants’. Presbyterians and Catholics alike bitterly resented the imposition, which in the late 18th and early 19th centuries intensified support for agrarian Secret societies and in the 1830s led to what is known as the Tithe War . Liability was assessed by tithe-proctors, who were often Catholics, and who aroused great enmity. Although the burden of tithes was made less contentious by the reforms of the 1830s, it was not until...

Transportation

Transportation   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Thereafter new penal colonies were founded in Botany Bay and Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) in Australia. About 40,000 convicts were transported to Australia between 1788 and 1868 (when transportation was abolished), many of them common criminals, but people convicted of agrarian or political offences ( see Secret societies ; Whiteboys ) were also transported. See also Norfolk Island...

digger

digger   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...A person who digs. In the 17th century, the Diggers were a group of radical dissenters formed in England in 1649 as an offshoot of the Levellers , believing in a form of agrarian communism in which common land would be made available to the poor; they first asserted their principles at St George's Hill, Walton-on-Thames, in Surrey in 1649 , where they began to dig up the land and plant crops. The Diggers were suppressed by the authorities, and their leader, Gerrard Winstanley ( fl. 1648–52 ) imprisoned. In Australia and New Zealand, digger is an...

Plan of Campaign

Plan of Campaign   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of Campaign . The name given to a tactic adopted by the National League (successor of the Land League ) between 1885 and 1893 as part of the continuing agrarian struggle. Although the Land Act of 1881 had brought about some improvement, by 1885 an agricultural depression meant that tenants had fallen behind with rents and evictions were again becoming commonplace. At a meeting in Monaghan on 4 October 1885 , Tim Healy suggested that tenants in a given area ask a reasonable abatement of rent from their landlord. If they were refused they should...

Secret societies

Secret societies   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...societies . There were essentially two kinds of secret society in the Ireland of the 18th and 19th centuries: those of a political/sectarian nature, and the more common kind who engaged in agrarian protest. The latter were a phenomenon of Irish agricultural life for about 80 years from the first appearance of the Whiteboys in Tipperary in 1761 (though the Houghers had appeared earlier in the century). Other groups included the Hearts of Steel, Oakboys, Terry Alts , Carders and Molly Maguires . The societies were characterized by elaborate oaths...

Sheehan, Canon [Patrick Augustine]

Sheehan, Canon [Patrick Augustine] (1852–1913)   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...had more congenial subjects, mediated through realistic characters in real situations. Among these are Miriam Lucas ( 1912 ), about the travails of a Catholic heiress involved in labour strikes in Dublin and journalism in American slums; Glenanaar ( 1905 ), which features agrarian crimes; The Graves of Kilmorna ( 1915 ), involving Fenianism and the Land War; and Luke Delmege ( 1901 ), about an intellectual priest learning humility in the context of a rural parish. Sheehan died in Doneraile on 5 October 1913...

Vinegar Hill

Vinegar Hill 2   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...in chains, their rotting bodies left on view for months pour encourager les autres . The rest were brutally flogged or sent to work in chain gangs. Although Britain continued to send political prisoners to New South Wales in the coming decades, many of them Whiteboys or other agrarian rebels, they were widely dispersed in the colony, which itself was expanding west-ward, and never again presented a danger of...

Populist

Populist   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A term applied in the USA to a member of the People’s Party, an agrarian protest movement formed at St Louis in 1891 . They demanded free and unlimited silver currency, the prohibition of alien land ownership, state control of transport and similar...

Eleusinian mysteries

Eleusinian mysteries   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...mysteries The religious rites in honour of demeter or ceres , originally an agrarian cult, performed at Eleusis in Attica but later taken over by the Athenian state and partly celebrated at Athens. The rites included sea bathing, processions and religious dramas, and the initiated obtained thus a happy life beyond the grave. Little is known about the chief rites, hence the figurative use of the phrase to mean something deeply mysterious. The Eleusinian mysteries were abolished by the Emperor Theodosius about the end of the 4th century ad...

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