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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Religious Agrarianism

Religious Agrarianism   Reference library

Todd LeVasseur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...religious agrarianism is emerging as part of the greening of religion. By fusing ecological agrarian values and ethics into existing religious cosmologies, religious agrarians are renewing and reinterpreting their traditions to make them relevant to modern-day sustainable food concerns. Religious agrarians find evidence and inspiration in their own traditions to engage in sustainable farming, yet they are conversant and knowledgeable about many of the same issues of concern that motivate ecological agrarians. Therefore, religious agrarianism is a mix of...

Lard and Shortening

Lard and Shortening   Reference library

Michael Krondl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and cakes and even as a dressing for vegetables. Before the advent of refrigeration, most of the nation's pork was salted and the fattier parts were used for flavoring stuffings as well as stews. Bacon, and the drippings that it would yield, were a prized ingredient. In this agrarian society, lard was rendered at home and kept in the cool confines of the aptly named larder successfully for many months. The crisp crust that lard produces in frying was particularly appreciated in the South where, it has been suggested, black cooks adapted west African frying...

Downing, Andrew Jackson

Downing, Andrew Jackson   Reference library

Anne Mendelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and pomegranates as well as citrus fruits). Downing also treats currants, gooseberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, and melons (“the richest and most luscious of all herbaceous fruits”). Bibliography Mendelson, Anne . “The Decline of the Apple.” In The New Agrarianism: Land, Culture, and the Community of Life , edited by Eric T. Freyfogle , pp. 111–128. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2001. Schuyler, David . Apostle of Taste: Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815–1852 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1996. Anne...

Kitchen Gardening

Kitchen Gardening   Reference library

Elyse Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...rice, sorghum, eggplant, and tomatoes. Over time, these foods became integral parts of the American diet while contributing to the development of a distinct cuisine. The Good Life. The importance of kitchen gardening declined in the later nineteenth century as the dominant agrarian way of life gave way to rapid urbanization. Consequently, for the first time in U.S. history, the population began buying produce from retail grocers rather than cultivating it themselves. Many people left the cities for the newly created post–Civil War suburbs, seeking relief...

Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa   Reference library

Tonya Hopkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...( karamu ). In the early twenty-first century Kwanzaa was embraced by an estimated 28 million people of African descent around the globe honoring a common heritage, and its popularity continues to grow. Kwanzaa and Harvest. The concept of Kwanzaa is linked to sustenance and agrarian rites, as it is a creative synthesis of the many African harvest rituals practiced across the continent during ancient and modern times. At these “first fruits celebrations” people come together to harvest crops ( mazao ) of fruits, vegetables, and other produce and to give...

Cafeterias

Cafeterias   Reference library

Ruth Tobias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Although it was christened with the Spanish word for “coffee shop,” it is rather a buffet—a self-service operation on a relatively large scale. Efficient and economical, it provided a solution to various logistical problems arising in the transition between a primarily agrarian and an essentially urban-industrial society: as fewer and fewer people worked on either their own land or their own time, and scheduled lunch breaks made midday commutes home impractical, the need for eateries that were conveniently located within commercial districts and...

Cooperatives

Cooperatives   Reference library

Elyse Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...groceries. Origins of the Cooperative Movement. The modern consumer cooperative originated in nineteenth-century Great Britain. It was a response to the depressed economic conditions brought about by the Industrial Revolution, which effectively did away with the prevailing rural agrarian way of life in England. The depression of the 1840s also caused widespread unemployment and crushing poverty, especially in many newly industrialized urban areas. Corrupt company stores controlled most of the food supply, selling contaminated food at inflated prices. Cooperative...

Wineries

Wineries   Reference library

Tonya Hopkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and wine-making technology as well as in growing marketing budgets to assist with the increasingly competitive global wine market. American wineries are a key part of state and county tourism, offering increasingly popular packages of “agri-tourism” for those seeking agrarian landscape getaways. Promoting destination wineries, many convention and visitors bureaus link prospective visitors to wineries and local attractions like harvest festivals and jazz concerts. Many American vintners compete to open the most lavish hospitality centers, complete...

Songs

Songs   Reference library

Bob Pastorio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...now.” He looks down the roadway and what d’you think he sees? The Georgia Militia cracking goober peas. In the early twentieth century, American life was sharply changed by the World War, the Dust Bowl, the Depression, and a general shifting away from the steady life of an agrarian society. That was a perfect setting for a song like “Big Rock Candy Mountain,” a traditional hobo ballad that appears in many slightly different versions over the years. Burl Ives popularized his variation in the 1940s and 1950s. It uses food as metaphor for the comfortable...

Cocktails

Cocktails   Reference library

Dale DeGroff

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the cocktail and the cocktail culture in the early 1800s. One of the biggest was the Industrial Revolution. New technology and the explosion of immigration greatly changed the American way of life in the beginning of the nineteenth century. In forty years America went from an agrarian to an urban society. Immigration. Driven by the potato famine in the British islands and the disastrous economy of the post-Napoleonic Wars on the Continent, waves of immigrants flocked to the cities of the Northeast, and they brought strong communal drinking traditions with...

Food Reform Movements

Food Reform Movements   Reference library

Nicolas Larchet

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...But this was not the first time such a movement met the preoccupations of the ruling class: what continuities and discontinuities can be traced across antebellum, progressive, and contemporary food reform movements? “Simpler, Plainer, and More Natural”: Dietary Reformers and the Agrarian Myth in the Jacksonian Era. Aroused by the Second Great Awakening —a religious revival movement that spread through the young republic in the first half of the nineteenth century—and confronted with the making of an urban and industrial society, religious leaders were quick to...

Fats and Oils

Fats and Oils   Reference library

Michael Krondl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cakes, and even as a dressing for vegetables. Before the advent of refrigeration, most of the nation's pork was salted, and the fattier parts were used for flavoring stuffings as well as stews. Bacon and the drippings that it would yield were prized ingredients. In this agrarian society lard was rendered at home and kept for many months in the cool confines of the aptly named larder. The crisp crust that lard produces in frying was particularly appreciated in the South, where, it has been suggested, black cooks adapted West African frying techniques to...

Festivals

Festivals   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...those of all ages. But they are much more than that. Through the celebration of food, Americans also celebrate history, heritage, culture, and economic opportunity. Early immigrants from Europe continued the tradition of ceremonial harvest festivals, marking America's primarily agrarian economy and the staple food production that served to sustain life. The Industrial Revolution, however, brought sweeping changes that would have a lasting effect. America's rapidly developing industries created an enormous demand for workers, and large numbers of people...

Cooking Contests

Cooking Contests   Reference library

Becky Mercuri, Jonathan Deutsch, and Nathan C. Crook

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fairs and food festivals America's agricultural fairs, which can be traced back to the medieval fairs of Europe, were established in the early 1800s. They facilitated the exchange of information and technology required for Americans to develop and maintain a self-sufficient agrarian economy. Because fairs provided a communal venue for the entire family, there was a natural expansion from activities involving farming implements, crop exhibitions, and animal husbandry into the domestic arts. These fairs sponsored America's oldest cookery competitions, based...

Cake

Cake   Reference library

Stephen Schmidt, Stephen Schmidt, Kim Pierce, Andrew F. Smith, Stephen Schmidt, Cathy K. Kaufman, Jennifer C. Keegan, Cathy K. Kaufman, and Sally Parham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...get-togethers. And from the capacious ovens of manor, church, and university bake houses issued the gargantuan celebratory spice cakes called “great cakes,” weighing fifty pounds or more. At the manor, these fabled cakes were the highlights of weddings and of the many community agrarian festivals staged under manor auspices such as harvest and sheep-shearing; churches featured the cakes at fund-raising feasts called “ales”; and universities brought the cakes forth on commencement day to rowdy crowds of drunken students. The first English settlers brought...

Historical Overview

Historical Overview   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith, John U. Rees, Rachelle E. Friedman, John U. Rees, Alison Tozzi, Kara Newman, Anne Mendelson, Amy Bentley, Sylvia Lovegren, and Sylvia Lovegren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and canned were being purchased on a cash-and-carry basis from markets stocked with a wide array of processed goods—a far cry from the way that Americans were buying food just a few decades earlier. In the years immediately following the Civil War, America was still very much an agrarian nation. The majority of the nation's workforce was employed in farming or farm-related activities, and local agriculture was a major factor determining one's diet. This meant that food was seasonal, and diets did not vary to a great degree. A family produced food to sell for a...

Palladius

Palladius   Reference library

Hanneke Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...(4th century ad ). Next to nothing is known about the life of this agrarian writer of Ancient rome . He is the author of a treatise called, like Varro’s earlier work, De re rustica , in 15 books. The first book is a general introduction to farming; the last two comprise a guide to veterinary medicine and an account of grafting . The remaining 12 books deal with the tasks to be carried out throughout the agricultural year, one book for each month; Palladius has more to say about the vine than about any other crop. What he says, however, is sound but...

stewing

stewing   Reference library

Carlo Fiori

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...brittle texture. Other examples relate to the traditional processes of Ragusano DOP and Pecorino Siciliano DOP, where the curd is immersed in scotta after the ricotta production for about two to three hours. See also acidification and syneresis . Agrarian Research . http://www.agrarian.com . Kosikowski, Frank Y. Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods . Westport, Conn.: F. Y. Kosikowski, 1997. Ottogalli, Giorgio . Atlante dei formaggi: Guida a oltre 600 formaggi e latticini provenienti da tutto il mondo . Milan: Ulrico Hoepli Editore, 2001. Carlo...

Lithuania

Lithuania   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...to Lithuania becoming a republic within the Soviet Union from 1945 to 1991 . Thus Lithuanian cuisine has been exposed to numerous influences, especially those of poland , germany , and russia . Yet indigenous traditions, many with medieval origins, survive. These reflect the agrarian nature of the country, and also its 96 km (60-mile) Baltic coastline, which yields the Baltic herring which are so well loved in all three Baltic states. Other features which Lithuanians share with latvia and estonia are excellent rye breads; a considerable emphasis on dairy...

Urban Farming

Urban Farming   Reference library

Evan Weissman

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...downtown Brooklyn). The two urban centers provided nearby farmers with ready access to large markets, abundant natural fertilizers in the form of organic waste produced by people and animals, and an ample supply of labor in the form of newly arrived immigrants, many of whom had agrarian backgrounds. The first true period of urban farming in New York City unfolded during World War II, when the American home front was dotted with “victory gardens.” Supported by the federal government, victory gardens were cultivated by groups and individuals to supplement food...

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