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Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Tigua Dance

Tigua Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
454 words

...are slightly hunched. The arms move from the elbows, causing the forearms to raise and lower. The legs alternately lift from one side to another. This stepping movement is subdued for women but almost a prance when performed by men. The Tigua of Ysleta del Sur are no longer an agrarian people and, as a result, the meanings of their ceremonies have changed. The dances are now prayers and affirmations of Tigua identity. The participants have individual reasons for dancing: to acknowledge answered prayers, to pray for strength to overcome a problem, or to answer...

May Night

May Night   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
1,432 words
Illustration(s):
1

...direct in the somewhat archaic but telling use of natural brass. While it was through imitating Glinka that Rimsky truly found himself, he added something all his own: a deliberate cultivation of the ritual aspects of folklore as a manifestation of the immemorial Slavonic agrarian religion. Richard...

Mireille

Mireille   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
1,911 words

...figures in the unfolding story. Vincent sings fine music in the Act 1 duet and the Chanson de Magali (the best‐known number from the opera) but a pale cavatine in the last act. Mireille was noteworthy in its day for presenting class differences entirely within the context of agrarian, rural society and some early reviewers had difficulty accepting that a ‘mere’ country girl could sing an aria with heroic cut such as ‘En marche’. Steven...

Myanmar

Myanmar   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
2,502 words

...often called collectively “hill tribes.” These include such groups as the Shan, the Kachin, and the Chin. In the low-lands live the Burmese, who, along with their cultural and linguistic neighbors the Arakanese, form the single largest cultural group. Many Burmese follow an agrarian way of life, although one-fourth of the modern population resides in urban areas, chiefly in the cities of Rangoon (Yangon) and Mandalay. Nat Pwe Ceremony Although nominally Buddhist, the country actually has two important and distinct religions; coexisting with Buddhism is the...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
12,773 words

...by dancing, as was the month-long Opet Festival, during which the sacred bark of Amun sailed the Nile from Karnak to Luxor and back. There were dances in homage to the king at the receipt of foreign tribute, at ceremonies when the monarch conferred honors upon subjects; at agrarian work-associated festivities, such as thanksgiving, at harvest time; at postcircumcision initiation rites; at war or combat dances and games; as entertainment for the king and others of quality or rank; at banquets; at funerary feasts and in processions; and during the transport...

Cuba

Cuba   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
5,251 words

...it remained a Spanish colony, and slavery was abolished only in 1886 . In 1895 a new war for independence culminated in the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the establishment of the Cuban republic that year. On 1 January 1959 Fidel Castro 's Marxist government, based on agrarian reform, replaced a series of dictators. The population, some 12 million, are of Spanish (criollos) , African, and mixed Spanish-African descent. They are mainly Roman Catholic, which is tolerated by the government. Since the mid-nineteenth century urban Western culture has...

China

China   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
15,393 words

...Arts ; Costume in Asian Traditions ; and Mask and Makeup , article on Asian Traditions . ] An Overview The immense time span of Chinese history permits only a subjective view of so transient an art as dancing. Dance in China evolved from the socioreligious rituals of early agrarian communities, blossomed as secular entertainment under court patronage while also serving the needs of Confucian high ritual, and finally emerged as a great animating force of the theater. In theater lies China's most obvious contribution to the dance. History The texts of the...

cereal

cereal  

[Ge]A general term covering a range of barley, wheat, oats, and rye.
Joucoujou

Joucoujou   Reference library

John M. Schechter

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
176 words

...below the horizontal crossbar. The length of the vertical pole below the crossbar is striated and used as a scraper. The musician shakes the pole in his left hand to sound the rattles while he scrapes it with a small stick held in his right hand. It is used in Kongo rituals and agrarian rites. John M. Schechter /R ...

Bhuyabaja

Bhuyabaja   Reference library

Geneviève Dournon

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
187 words

...surface of the bamboo is excised in part and cut into thin strips to provide two or three strings, raised on small movable bridges, also of bamboo. The Maria treat the zither as a string drum, striking the strings with two sticks. It is made and used during certain seasons for agrarian rites, which explains why it is rare. The tube zither, probably of Malay-Indonesian origin, is found only among a few tribal populations in India. It is used mainly in Indonesia, in the highlands of Vietnam, and also in Madagascar (valiha) since the Malay migrations. See W....

Fletcher, John Gould

Fletcher, John Gould (3 Jan 1886)   Reference library

Bruce Morton

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
364 words

...John Gould ( b Little Rock, AR , 3 Jan 1886 ; d Little Rock, AR , 10 May 1950 ). Poet . He first gained attention through his association with the Imagist movement ( c 1910–20 ) in England, where he was based from 1908 to 1933 , and with the Agrarian and Regionalist movements in his native South ( 1930–50 ). It was at Harvard University ( 1903–7 ) that he became interested in serious music. He published an autobiography, Life Is My Song ( 1937 ), and was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1939 for his Selected Poems ( 1938 ). Fletcher's early...

Kena

Kena   Reference library

John M. Schechter and J. Richard Haefer

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
448 words

...3rds with another kena and with a bombo or caja drum to perform regional dances. It is also played by Andean shepherds, as an instrument to inspire love, and in processions celebrating major festivals in Cuzco. Called kena-kena in Bolivia, it is popular in patronal and agrarian festivals. In Compi, on the shore of Lake Titicaca, it is reserved for the period between Easter and the end of the dry season, when the kollko , a six-hole beaked flute, is played until All Saints’ Day. In Irpa Chico, 30 km south of La Paz, the kena is played during...

Giteck, Janice

Giteck, Janice (27 June 1946)   Reference library

Ingram D. Marshall, Catherine Parsons Smith, and Jonas Westover

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
855 words

... 1981 ; Tree, chbr sym., orch, 1981 ; Loo-wit, va, orch, 1983 ; Tapasya, va, perc, 1987 ; Leningrad Spring, fl + pic + a fl, pf + mallets, perc, 1991 ; Sleepless in the Shadow, fl, ob, sax, bn, va, db, pf, perc, 1993–5 ; Puja: Songs to the Divine Mother, gui, 1995–6 ; Agrarian Chants, fl + pic + a fl + b fl, 1997 ; First Puja: 1997 , cathedral bells, 35 perfs./4 perc, 1997 Choral: How to Invoke a Garden (cant., J. Jones), SATB, 10 insts, 1969 ; Sun of the Center (cant., R. Kelley), male v, fl, cl, vn, pf, 1970 ; Magic Words to Feel Better, SATB,...

Corrido

Corrido   Reference library

Jacqueline Avila

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,064 words

...theme involved fallen heroes, building off the success of the Rio Grande corridos of Juan Cortina, Jacinto Treviño , and Gregorio Cortez . With each military coup d’état new corridos surfaced marking the fallen as new saints of the country. Corridos of Pancho Villa and agrarian revolutionary Emiliano Zapata became immensely popular with the people. In addition, details of war victories and losses and geographical locations (usually specifying a particular battle) are utilized. In the years following the Revolution, although the corrido did not fall...

Tewa

Tewa   Reference library

J. Richard Haefer

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,066 words

...to the gathering and production of food are the most common ceremonial dances. A large series of agricultural dances traces the growth of crops from before the planting of seeds to after the harvest. The penshare (Deer Dance) and other animal dances mix the patterns of agrarian line dances with the mime of animal representations. The social, or round, dance is also popular among the Tewa. The Matachines dance reached Mexico from Spain and spread through the Pueblo cultures (and even into southern Plains cultures) to gain a place in the Pueblo...

Political music

Political music   Reference library

David K. Dunaway

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,360 words

...frontier of American Indian settlements earlier in the century, farming had spread through the Midwestern and Western states. Unfortunately for the farmers, working conditions were determined by large trusts comprising landholders, banks, and railroads. In the 1830s and 1840s, agrarian reform movements, such as Dorr's Rebellion in Rhode Island and the Anti-Rent Wars in upstate New York, gave birth to humorous and biting songs about landholders. After the Civil War, with rising costs for rail transportation and mortgage foreclosures, farm tenancy increased...

Weill, Kurt

Weill, Kurt (2 March 1900)   Reference library

bruce d. mcclung

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,777 words

...work and is widely considered to be his American masterpiece. Never one to repeat himself, Weill's next show, Love Life ( 1948 ) with librettist and lyricist Alan Jay Lerner, recounted in its book scenes the economic effects on Susan and Sam Cooper's marriage, from the agrarian economy of 1791 through the halcyon days of the 1920s to the post-war industrial economy. A panoply of intervening vaudeville acts “in one” comment on the book scenes and gave Weill the opportunity to explore a variety of historical vernacular styles. Love Life , subtitled “A...

Country music

Country music   Reference library

Jocelyn R. Neal

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,037 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and outlooks, a factor that leads diversity of meanings ascribed to even a single country performance and sharply divided factions within the audience. Although the core of the country fan base was historically working-class white rural people with a first-hand connection to agrarian life, that has changed radically over the past century. Even in those first few decades of recorded country, that description failed to account for all listeners. Although the music industry attempted to draw stark racial lines between musical genres, both musicians and...

Mṛdaṅga

Mṛdaṅga   Reference library

Alastair Dick, Harold S. Powers, Gordon Geekie, and P. Allen Roda

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
6,942 words

...like that of the hard pastes for right-hand faces of the modern drums. Various origins have been put forward for the tuning pastes of Indian drums, such as the sacrificial smearing of the blood of an enemy conquered in battle, or the attaching of flour-based pastes as an agrarian rite. Drums have certainly been worshipped in India (e.g. the muracu, khol , and tumdak’ ), and the Nāṭyaśāstra itself contains a section on the rites attending the installation of theatre drums and the offerings such as honey, rice pudding, blood, and flowers made to (but...

African American music

African American music   Reference library

Guthrie P. Ramsey Jr.

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,113 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the South. During the so-called “Great Migration” up to 1 million southern blacks left for the urban north. This mass movement created a cultural milieu in which new musical forms appeared and older styles continued to transform as a result of this move from rural to urban and agrarian to industrial lifestyles. In all aspects of the culture industry—recording, publishing, performance, teaching, and composition—an African American presence made an indelible mark. One of the most dramatic developments occurred in the continued ascendancy of instrumental...

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