You are looking at 1-20 of 20 entries  for:

  • All: agrarian x
  • Literary studies - poetry and poets x
clear all

View:

Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Agrarianism

Agrarianism   Reference library

Nicholas Everett

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... A movement among men of letters in the American South of the late 1920s and 1930s to defend its traditional agricultural way of life against the industrialization and urbanization that were fast overwhelming it. The ‘Twelve Southerners’ who contributed essays to the most substantial Agrarian publication, I'll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition ( 1930 ), were Donald * Davidson , John Gould * Fletcher , Henry Blue Kline , Lyle Lanier , Andrew Lytle , H. C. Nixon , Frank Lawrence Owsley , John Crowe * Ransom , Allen *...

Agrarians

Agrarians   Reference library

J. Burt

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...a turn sympathetic toward Agrarianism. And important southern writers of succeeding generations such as Flannery O’Connor and Wendell Berry inherited something of Agrarianism in their sensibilities. Early 21st-c. manifestations of “green” lit. and crit. also share some features—such as hostility to capitalist materialism and respect for the otherness of nature—with Agrarianism. See environment and poetry . Bibliography P. K. Conkin , The Southern Agrarians (1988) ; P. V. Murphy , The Rebuke of History: The Southern Agrarians and American Conservative...

Tawney, R. H.

Tawney, R. H. (1880–1962)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

...R. H. [ Richard Henry Tawney ] ( 1880–1962 ) British historian The Agrarian Problem in the Sixteenth Century ( 1912 ) Non-Fiction Poverty as an Industrial Problem ( 1913 ) Non-Fiction The Acquisitive Society ( 1921 ) Non-Fiction Secondary Education for All ( 1922 ) Non-Fiction Religion and the Rise of Capitalism ( 1926 ) Non-Fiction Equality ( 1931 ) Non-Fiction Land and Labour in China ( 1932 ) Non-Fiction...

Davidson, Donald

Davidson, Donald (1893–1968)   Reference library

Martin Seymour-Smith

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Donald ( Grady ) ( 1893–1968 ) Born in Tennessee and taught at Vanderbilt University from 1920. He was one of the founders and editors of the Fugitive magazine, and one of the foremost Southern * Agrarians , contributing to the manifesto I'll Take My Stand . He was also the close friend and confidant of such poets as Allen * Tate and John Crowe * Ransom . He wrote the libretto to the opera Singin' Billy (produced 1952 ), to music by Charles Faulkner Bryan. As a poet in his own right, Davidson has not been reckoned one of the outstanding...

Fugitives, The

Fugitives, The   Reference library

Nicholas Everett

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the tenets of the New Criticism; they went on to enjoy successful literary careers; and for them, as well as for Warren (the youngest Fugitive), Fugitives: An Anthology (edited by Davidson , 1928 ) marked the watershed between their involvement as Fugitive poets and as * Agrarian Southerners. The Fugitive Group: A Literary History , by Louise Cowan ( 1959 ), is the best account of its history, while The Wary Fugitives: Four Poets and the South , by Louis D. Rubin ( 1978 —both Louisiana State University Press) is a more detailed study of Ransom ,...

Fletcher, John Gould

Fletcher, John Gould (1886–1950)   Reference library

Mick Imlah

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...phase of his career, beginning in the mid-Twenties, was religious, its most significant product the Blakean long poem Branches of Adam ( 1926 ). After a nervous breakdown in 1932 he returned for good to Arkansas, where he followed the * Fugitives in affirming a Southern agrarian culture against Yankee materialism; his last books, South Star ( 1941 ) and The Burning Mountain ( 1946 ) have strong regional associations. In 1950 a recurrence of mental illness caused him to drown himself. Fletcher's Selected Poems (Farrar & Rinehart, 1938 ) won him...

Tate, Allen

Tate, Allen (1899–1979)   Reference library

Nicholas Everett

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...) Born in Winchester, Kentucky. At Vanderbilt University he joined John Crowe * Ransom 's literary discussion group (his friend Robert Penn * Warren was also a member), and co-founded and edited its journal, The Fugitive , thus beginning a lasting alliance with the * Agrarian group of Southern writers. In 1924 he married the novelist Caroline Gordon , and over the next ten years, living variously in West Virginia, New York, Paris, and Tennessee, published biographies of Stonewall Jackson ( 1928 ) and Jefferson Davis ( 1929 ), and made his...

Justice, Donald

Justice, Donald (1925–2004)   Reference library

Robert McPhillips

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...1982 he returned to Florida, and taught at the University of Florida in Gainesville until his retirement. Having spent many of his childhood summers on his grandparents' farm in Georgia during the Depression, his view of the South differed from that of the * Fugitives and * Agrarians , despite early admiration for the work of * Ransom . He did not share their idealization of the area as a lost paradise, knowing primarily its poverty, and eventually ceased to consider himself a Southern writer. Nevertheless, it is to the Florida and Georgia of his childhood...

Murray, Les(lie Allan)

Murray, Les(lie Allan) (1938–)   Reference library

Mick Imlah

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the problem of how to square the demands of a prolonged narrative with the reverberating stops of lyric and meditative verse; they also keep Murray’s habitual garrulousness in check. Its plot, however, a fable at the service of Murray’s Roman Catholic beliefs and masculine and agrarian prejudices, is calculated to antagonize. Uncompromising views on war, abortion, and the sexes are aired between scenes of instructive violence: in one, a deplored feminist is retributively ‘baptised’ by scalding and disfiguring her face. The novel reminds us of Murray’s *...

Fugitives

Fugitives   Reference library

J. Burt

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...intellectual habits of New Criticism. Although many of the Fugitives were later members of the Agrarians , the Fugitives did not have the political or economic agenda of the later group. But their disciplined examination of poetry and their freedom of thought about it both began the literary renaissance of the 20th-c. South and gave the Fugitives a place in the broader literary world. Bibliography J. L. Stewart , The Burden of Time: The Fugitives and Agrarians (1965) ; C. Beck , The Fugitive Legacy (2001) ; M. Farrell , Collaborative Circles (2001)....

New Criticism

New Criticism   Reference library

S. Schryer

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,413 words

...encompassed several of Ransom’s most gifted students, incl. Tate and Warren. This group evolved into a regionalist political movement known as the Agrarians and published their key manifesto, I’ll Take My Stand , in 1930 . This text argued for the preservation of a distinctive southern U.S. culture and economics against the intrusion of the industrial North. By the mid-1930s, Ransom and many fellow Agrarian writers had become disenchanted with regional politics and instead focused their energies upon the reform of literary studies. Ransom became the ed. of...

Georgic

Georgic   Reference library

K. Goodman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...and other prose genres dedicated to the tasks of daily life, georgic once again appears more often as a mode; its attitudes and concerns persisted, but informing a range of poetic and prose genres. Georgic verse maintained a foothold in 19th- and early 20th-c. America, where agrarian improvement and national expansion came later than in Britain. Its presence is more or less marked in the work of Joel Barlow , Walt Whitman , Robert Frost , Lorine Niedecker , Muriel Rukeyser , and others. In mid-20th-c. Brazil, one of the definitive poems of the ...

Beat Poetry

Beat Poetry   Reference library

M. Damon

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Poetry refers to the work of a group of Am. writers from the late 1940s through the mid-1960s. It rejected as claustrophobic and ethically untenable the formalism of the then-dominant New Criticism , Southern Agrarians, and other movements that stressed the autonomy of the work of art; its compressed, intricate, and depersonalized nature; and the “dramatic irony” that arose from its internal and strictly textual contradictions. Beat writing strove to achieve a more romantic, though mod., “marriage of Heaven and Hell” through yoking abject subject matter,...

Romania, Poetry of

Romania, Poetry of   Reference library

V. P. Nemoianu

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,147 words

...and undoubtedly circulated orally. The 18th c. also witnessed the culmination of oral folk verse, references to and quotations from which are found already in the 15th and 16th cs. They express in a variety of genres the existential horizon and emotional universe of a stable agrarian society. While steeped in a religiosity that combines a simplified Christianity and a broad pantheistic sacrality, this poetry also preserves some traces of a pre-Roman pagan mythology. Heroic trads. are rendered not in epics but rather in short ballads . The bulk of folk...

Environment and Poetry

Environment and Poetry   Reference library

U. K. Heise

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,418 words

...that highlighted its alienation from nature, its scientific and instrumental rationalism, its capitalist drive to commodification, and its large-scale and anonymous institutions. Some of these critiques draw on older models of Am. society, as is obvious in the Jeffersonian agrarianism of Berry’s poetry; on Native Am. ways of life, as in Harjo’s poems; or on other cultures with what are understood to be their different perspectives on the natural world. Snyder’s poetry, e.g., which has commanded by far the greatest amount of ecocritical attention, combines...

Finland, Poetry of

Finland, Poetry of   Reference library

K. K. Simonsuuri

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,668 words

...becomes pregnant by eating cranberries (Finnish marja ). The religious basis of these poems, which were composed by individual singers according to their poetic skill, derives from a fusion of native rituals, Catholic, and Gr. Orthodox beliefs. While oral poetry survived in the agrarian parts mostly of eastern Finland, its importance decreased as other attempts were made to forge the Finnish lang. into a literary medium. Most important of these is Mikael Agricola ’s ( 1510 ?–57) trans. of the NT ( 1548 ), a decisive ling. landmark, as well as one of the first...

Shi

Shi   Reference library

J. Chen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,994 words

...own life) was Tao Qian ( 365–427 ), also known as Tao Yuanming. Tao Qian composed in a strongly autobiographical mode, describing his rejection of official life for a return to a life of farming. Although such tianyuan shi (farmland poetry) are often thought to idealize the agrarian life, Tao Qian’s poems also describe the difficulties and hardships that he and his family faced. His imitations of gushi were in a more straightforward style than the Western Jin poets. Closely associated with Tao Qian was the poet Xie Lingyun ( 385–433 ), who is often...

United States, Poetry of the

United States, Poetry of the   Reference library

M. Cohen and M. Davidson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
15,146 words

...anthem of Federalist pieties borrowed the tune of “To Anacreon in Heaven,” a ribald drinking song that Francis Scott Key’s ( 1779–1843 ) “The Defense of Fort McHenry”—later “The Star-Spangled Banner”—also adopted). In reality, the U.S. population in 1798 was young, rural, agrarian, and poor. Literacy rates were increasing, but the rise was uneven, with the Northeast outpacing the South and the trans-Appalachian West. Limited roads and bridges made transportation and communication between regions difficult. Consequently, there was no national market for...

Spain, Poetry of

Spain, Poetry of   Reference library

M. M. Gaylord and J. Mayhew

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
10,335 words

...Its earliest forms, refrain-based, are the zéjel or zajal (another peninsular innovation in Ar.), villancico , and cossante . Codified, colloquial female-voiced poetry forms one of the strongest strands of Sp. lyric . Its direct eroticism, set in the natural fertility of agrarian life, is heard in contrast with the tortured male-voiced codes of Occitan and Sp. courtly poetry and the tendentious voices of epic and philosophical and didactic verse. Cantiga forms, intermingled with Occitan themes and song types, are also found in male-voiced lyric, most...

Russia, Poetry of

Russia, Poetry of   Reference library

A. Kahn

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
10,027 words

...art’s sake” reached Russia in the 1860s and 1870s. Yet in the “thick journals” that treated the famous “accursed questions” of Rus. politics and hist., the radical critics contested the worth of Pushkin and “pure” poets to a country experiencing severe social tensions because of agrarian reform and industrialization. Poets declaimed with prosaic explicitness in defense of the downtrodden and urban poor. Pushkin’s status as an object of attack from the Left, veneration from the Right, and adoration from the nonpolitical middle classes in itself gives evidence of...

View: