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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Agrarian Revolution

Agrarian Revolution   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... Revolution the transformation of British agriculture during the 18th century, characterized by the enclosure of common land and the introduction of technological innovations such as the seed drill and the rotation of...

agrarianism

agrarianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... , loosely termed ‘back to the land’, was a defining characteristic of popular radicalism. Some agrarians, like Thomas *Spence , called for the abolition of private property, while others desired a restored peasantry. Common to all was a belief in the viability of small-scale agricultural enterprise, and in the right of universal equal access to the *land [16] . Agrarianism derived from an awareness of how inequalities in landholding, which *enclosure was extending, reinforced all other inequalities. In this sense virtually all British radical...

Agrarianism

Agrarianism   Reference library

Nicholas Everett

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... A movement among men of letters in the American South of the late 1920s and 1930s to defend its traditional agricultural way of life against the industrialization and urbanization that were fast overwhelming it. The ‘Twelve Southerners’ who contributed essays to the most substantial Agrarian publication, I'll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition ( 1930 ), were Donald * Davidson , John Gould * Fletcher , Henry Blue Kline , Lyle Lanier , Andrew Lytle , H. C. Nixon , Frank Lawrence Owsley , John Crowe * Ransom , Allen *...

Agrarians

Agrarians   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
36 words

... , name applied to certain Southern writers, including J.C. Ransom , J.G. Fletcher , R.P. Warren , Allen Tate , and Donald Davidson , who had championed an agrarian economy for the South and the more general movement known as Regionalism...

Agrarians

Agrarians   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Literature
Length:
38 words

...Agrarians , name applied to certain Southern writers, including J. C. Ransom , J. G. Fletcher , R. P., Warren , Allen Tate , and Donald Davidson , who championed an agrarian economy for the South and the more general movement known as Regionalism...

Agrarians

Agrarians   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
61 words

... The name given to a group of writers from the Southern US states which included John Crowe Ransom , Allen Tate , and Robert Penn Warren . They expressed their resistance to urbanization and the loss of tradition in their manifesto, the 1930 collection of essays I'll Take my Stand . Several of these writers subsequently retreated from their 1930 position....

Agrarians

Agrarians   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
61 words

... The name given to a group of writers from the Southern US states which included John Crowe Ransom , Allen Tate , and Robert Penn Warren . They expressed their resistance to urbanization and the loss of tradition in their manifesto, the 1930 collection of essays I'll Take my Stand . Several of these writers subsequently retreated from their 1930 ...

Agrarians

Agrarians   Reference library

J. Burt

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...a turn sympathetic toward Agrarianism. And important southern writers of succeeding generations such as Flannery O’Connor and Wendell Berry inherited something of Agrarianism in their sensibilities. Early 21st-c. manifestations of “green” lit. and crit. also share some features—such as hostility to capitalist materialism and respect for the otherness of nature—with Agrarianism. See environment and poetry . Bibliography P. K. Conkin , The Southern Agrarians (1988) ; P. V. Murphy , The Rebuke of History: The Southern Agrarians and American Conservative...

Agrarians, The

Agrarians, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference

..., The , a name given to specific Southern US poets and writers who espoused an ideology that championed regionalism and an agrarian economy for the South in the late 1920s and early 1930s. This group published The Fugitive ( 1922–5 ), a bi-monthly magazine based in Nashville, Tennessee, which combined poetry and criticism attacking the ‘high-caste Brahmins of the Old South’, in the phrase of the editorial. Perceiving themselves to have been invaded by Northern capitalist monopolies, their critique was aimed at what they took to be the cultural...

The Fugitives and Southern Agrarianism

The Fugitives and Southern Agrarianism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,594 words

...assessment of the Agrarian heritage that remains controversial. Malvasi, Mark G. The Unregenerate South: The Agrarian Thought of John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, and Donald Davidson . Baton Rouge, La., 1997. A stimulating, often provocative comparative analysis of the three principal Fugitive-Agrarians as writers and thinkers. Murphy, Paul V. The Rebuke of History: The Southern Agrarians and American Conservative Thought . Chapel Hill, N.C., 2001. A thorough intellectual history tracing the profound influence of Agrarianism on subsequent conservative...

Agrarians

Agrarians  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Name applied to certain Southern writers, including J. C. Ransom, J. G. Fletcher, R. P., Warren, Allen Tate, and Donald Davidson, who championed an agrarian economy for the South and the more general ...
Fugitives and Southern Agrarianism

Fugitives and Southern Agrarianism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A group of American poets and critics in the 1920s associated with Vanderbilt University, Tennessee and more directly with the bimonthly poetry magazine The Fugitive (1922–5). The group had no strict ...
Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...metropolis, linking native traditions of middle-class Dissent with *Scottish Enlightenment and French thought, as well as with republican rhetoric from America, was also inflected by issues arising from agricultural change. Thomas *Paine 's Agrarian Justice ( 1796 ), for instance, argued for an ameliorative agrarian capitalism. Although Paine did not advocate the expropriation of farm-owners, he none the less argued that they had responsibilities to their communities which derived from an original common ownership of the land. In legal title, the commons...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and insensible’ one associated with the slow growth of commerce and manufacturing against a predominantly *agrarian background [ see *agricultural revolution ]. Acting singly, this development would have been vulnerable to the ‘ordinary revolutions of war and government’. The outcome had been made more durable as a result of the unintended by-products of the shift in consumption patterns by feudal land-owners—those with legal entitlement to the agrarian social surplus. As their expenditure shifted towards the manufactured luxuries produced or imported by...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from Ruin ( 1793 ) imagined a day when the greater public virtue, resulting from *republicanism , would end the need for any system of punishment. As early as the 1780s a more collectivist strand in republicanism was being developed in the writings of Thomas *Spence , whose *agrarian utopia was founded on the nationalization of land and its management at the parish level. Spence himself participated in the revival of utopia as a literary genre that went along with this kind of political speculation. In A Supplement to the History of Robinson Crusoe (...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...were distinctly old-fashioned (rules typically forbade ploughing in favour of ‘spade husbandry’), and were criticized on the very modern grounds that they encouraged population. Cottages represented a society of sturdy yeomen existing in some recent but ill-defined era before *agrarian change. The theory of pauperism, for all its scientific status, tended to presuppose a past age in which the poor were less dependent and corrupt. Many who borrowed Malthus's concept of population surplus wavered between his analysis of the vigorous, reproductive body and an...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and a progressive property tax. His proposals were sufficiently radical (although in line with most modern welfare states) to convey to his opponents a more general sense that the right of property would not be sanctified in the event of a major political change. Moreover, his Agrarian Justice ( 1796 ), written after having escaped execution under Maximilien Robespierre and in the wake of the proto-socialist ‘Conspiracy of Equals’ led by François Babeuf in March 1796 , provided a still more radical and principled case for redistribution to meet the...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...There were a number of occasions when economic distress, industrial disorder, and popular radicalism might have led to armed *insurrection or even revolution. The Luddite industrial disorder of 1811–13 , the widespread distress and radical protests of 1816–20 , and the agrarian revolt, industrial protests, and political riots of 1830–1 might all have sparked off an insurrection if the ruling authorities had lost their nerve or had reacted in a different way. Revolutionary conspirators did exist and did plan violent action in 1796–8 and in 1816–17...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...oriented accents intersect in every ideological sign. Sign becomes an arena of the class struggle.’ A substantial proportion of the British population struggled to form new, or re-form old, collective identities at a time when the country was experiencing large changes in agrarian, industrial, and commercial structures and processes. This essay will spotlight such contests, especially between contestants from above and below at significant moments in the development of social relations, by focusing on a series of major languages, particularly those of...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...entered a phase in which the issues of *class [15] hostility and intellectual property rights became for the first time fully explicit. Ritson's emergence in Newcastle in the later 1770s coincided with the *American Revolution , the first speeches and pamphlets of the *agrarian communist Thomas *Spence , and Brand 's Popular Antiquities . The provocation that brought Ritson onto the national stage was probably the contribution to the Gentleman's Magazine of a young scholar from Ireland, Edmund Malone, gifted enough to have won instant acceptance...

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