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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...led insurgencies. As a fundamentalist Sunni group, Al-Qaeda is violently opposed to other interpretations of Islam and has been at the heart of much Muslim sectarian violence during the 21st century. The operations of Al-Qaeda in Iraq played a prominent part in the virtual civil war that erupted between Sunni and Shi'a factions during 2006–08 . Al-Qaeda actively sought to provoke and intensify this conflict through targeted attacks on mosques and religious pilgrims, knowing that the fury generated by such outrages would fuel an escalation of sectarian...

Power and Space in Electronic Communications

Power and Space in Electronic Communications   Reference library

Philip E. Steinberg and Darren Purcell

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,018 words

...competition and civil society, these same networks provide a means for alternative political formations to assert their presence. Philip E. Steinberg and Darren Purcell Florida State University and University of Oklahoma References Abbate, J. (1999) Inventing the Internet . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Abdulla, R.A. (2007) The Internet in the Arab World: Egypt and Beyond . New York: Peter Lang. Adams, P. (1998) Network Topologies and Virtual Place. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88, 88–106. Adams, P. , and Ghose, R. ...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet   Reference library

Gabriel Weimann

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,032 words

...funds and launder money, recruit and train members, communicate and conspire, plan and launch attacks. Al Qaeda, for example, now operates hundreds of websites and many more appear every year. Besides websites, modern terrorists rely on e-mail, chatrooms, e-groups, forums, virtual message boards, and resources like YouTube, Facebook, and Google Earth. Fighting online terrorism raises the issue of countermeasures and their cost. Since the advent of the internet, counterterrorism and security services all over the world have seen it as both a danger and a...

State, The

State, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... of 1948 and other compromises, delaying the development of combined arms warfare and perpetuating interservice rivalry that handicapped military operations and distorted military advice during the Vietnam War. MacArthur proved in some ways a more difficult problem. Charismatic and personable, he was a virtual throwback to the nineteenth century; as army commander in chief of the Pacific theater, he proved an uneasy partner to the admiral commanding the Pacific Fleet, Chester Nimitz . With the defeat of Japan, MacArthur became the virtual American...

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies   Reference library

Steven F. Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,793 words

...educational film and educational radio, then educational television and computer-assisted instruction, and now cyberspace and virtual learning environments would change dramatically the way we educate and the way people learn” ( Spaulding 2002 :119). Distance education became an issue in the 1990s with the rise of interactive television and other technologies, for example voice over internet protocol programs such as HorizonLive, Wimba, and WindowsLive, and a host of other products that allow multiple users to listen to and see each other and common text,...

Combat Effectiveness

Combat Effectiveness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...(land, air, sea) and nationality (allies); logistical sustainability for a campaign extended in time and/or distance; provisions for effective higher command in both the personal and the technical sense; the identification of fundamental enemy weaknesses; and the maximum combination of overwhelming firepower and surprising maneuver. Tactical effectiveness concentrates on the actual performance of combatant forces (infantry, armor, artillery, warships, combat aviation units) in engagements with the enemy. Operational and tactical effectiveness have...

Model UN and Model EU Programs

Model UN and Model EU Programs   Reference library

Gretchen J. Van Dyke

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,280 words

...occur entirely online. In one such case, students from North Dakota State University and the University of Cincinnati were twice linked via videoconference technology to conduct, first, a virtual session of the International Court of Justice and, second, an all-day “Virtual Security Council.” Both activities utilized an array of online tools and experienced varying degrees of success. ( Kuzma: 2000 ) Delegate Preparation Preparations for large-scale MUN programs and in-class versions are similar, except that for the former, preparatory work may or may...

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency   Reference library

David J. Betz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,693 words

...of warfare including conventional capabilities, irregular tactics and formations, terrorist acts including indiscriminate violence and coercion, and criminal disorder” ( 2007 :14). The distinguishing characteristic of hybrid wars is that the adversary employs all forms of conflict, conventional and unconventional, simultaneously in a coordinated manner at the tactical and operational level. Also, such conflicts take place within complex terrain, “amongst the people,” and exploit the virtual dimension to great effect. We can see in this parallels with the...

Technology and International Relations

Technology and International Relations   Reference library

Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,305 words

...occasional papers on new research methodologies and timely policy issues. RAND is an online resource for unclassified research and documents relating to terrorism studies. RAND papers on international policy include security and military policy as well as social and economic policy. Virtual Library of International Affairs Resources. At www2.etown.edu/vl/journals.html , accessed July 28, 2009. Provides a fairly extensive directory and search engines for international relations and foreign policy journals and magazines with significant online content. University...

Tactics

Tactics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... war plans and actual force deployment. War plans were drawn to gain sea control, support a major NATO war in Europe, and attack the Soviet homeland directly, with or without nuclear weapons . The plans envisioned battles fought against Soviet submarines, long‐range aircraft, and surface warships over the vastness of the ocean. Simultaneously, and paradoxically, the actual profitable deployment of American naval forces took place close inshore in a wide variety of circumstances and locales, involving air strikes, amphibious landings, and sustainment of...

Colonial Military Forces

Colonial Military Forces   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...militiamen though not subjected to military discipline. In 1885 Queensland and Tasmania passed virtual copies of Canada's Militia Act , nominally enrolling every fit man in their colonies into a defence force, threatening to conduct a militia ballot if too few came forward voluntarily to drill, and imposing on those who did partial military discipline and fixed training and terms of service, all in return for pay. The following year South Australia consolidated its volunteer and militia acts into a copy of the Canadian model, but still avoided imposing...

World System in the Information Age

World System in the Information Age   Reference library

Joachim K. Rennstich

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,068 words

...and as a constituent of social relations ( Kitchin 1998 ). It cannot be entirely eliminated because of the interaction of the virtual space with the world beyond ICT networks and cyberspace, which only in combination constitute the external networks on which the global world system is based. Increases in capacity, speed, and digitalization have provided possibilities to integrate graphics, text, video, and sound (including voice) in applications, while the integration of computing and communication technologies has created possibilities of accessing and...

Film and Television, War in Australian

Film and Television, War in Australian   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to the Women's Land Army, and the Women's Weekly magazine's handling of war, ‘The Weekly's War’, or other social issues. The nostalgia which these and other pieces demonstrate found a major expression in the celebrations and subsequent telefeatures surrounding the anniversaries of the Burma-Thailand railroad. This reached something of a peak with the virtual apotheosis in film (and elsewhere in print) of Edward ‘Weary’ Dunlop leading up to and following his death. There is little sign that this nostalgic recreation of events and icons of Anzac is in sharp...

The Sociology of the State: The State as a Conceptual Variable

The Sociology of the State: The State as a Conceptual Variable   Reference library

Yale H. Ferguson and Richard W. Mansbach

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,329 words

...with the territorial space defined by an interstate system, and that that fact has a profound impact on the ways a wide range of actual real states try to exercise traditional tasks. Some such tasks, like waging war, seem less central to states than they once did. In trying to make sense of these changes, scholars have had to find new ways of characterizing the state. Thus, the “welfare state” is giving way to a “competition state,” a “market state,” a “virtual state,” “residual state,” and – now perhaps with the recent worldwide financial collapse –...

Russian Security and Nuclear Policies: Successor to the Superpower Arsenal?

Russian Security and Nuclear Policies: Successor to the Superpower Arsenal?   Reference library

Mariya Y. Omelicheva

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,024 words

...and Russian strategic nuclear forces, see Podvig 2001 ). Several analysts highlighted a puzzling discrepancy between the Russian intended and actual nuclear posture as well as between the official doctrines and modernization programs ( Bluth 1998 ; Sokov 2000 ). The Russian security and military doctrines stipulate that the roles of nuclear weapons are deterrence of an attack by conventional forces and prevention of regional conflicts. These missions can best be performed by the long- and intermediate-range missiles with targeting flexibility and...

The Media and Postmodern Conflict

The Media and Postmodern Conflict   Reference library

Chiara de Franco

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,604 words

...“virtual” ( Ignatieff 2001 ), “virtuous” ( Der Derian 2001 ), “humane” ( Coker 2001 ), and a form of “spectator-sport” ( McInnes 2002 ). Besides the nuances differentiating each scholar’s view, contemporary conflicts and warfare are invariably connected to some recurrent elements: globalization; the decline of the State; the emergence of transnational relations, both cultural and economic; late capitalism; post-industrialism; the end of ideologies and metaphysics; and the rise of the “society of spectacle” and the information age. These elements are all...

Security Practices

Security Practices   Reference library

Thierry Balzacq, Tugba Basaran, Didier Bigo, Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet, and Christian Olsson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,959 words

...capital, services, and persons). This ban-opticon is deployed at a level that supersedes the nation state and forces governments to strengthen their collaboration in more or less globalized spaces, both physical and virtual, sometimes global or Westernized, and still more frequently Europeanized ( Balzacq and Carrera 2005 ). The effects of power and resistance are thus no longer contained by the political matrix of the relation between state and society. They exceed the frame of representations inscribed within the nation state, and disconnect direct...

Postinternational Theory

Postinternational Theory   Reference library

Yale H. Ferguson and Richard W. Mansbach

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,778 words

...London School of Economics provides information regarding research and analysis about global governance and global issues for academics, policy makers, journalists, and activists. KOF Index of Globalization. At http:/globalization.kof.ethz.ch . This Swiss site provides data for the economic, social, and political dimensions of globalization, giving an overall index of globalization, and sub-indices including actual economic flows, economic restrictions, information flows, personal contact, and cultural proximity on a yearly basis for 158 countries since ...

World War II (1939–45)

World War II (1939–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...banning segregation and discrimination in the military flowed from forces set in motion by the war, which also eroded religious and ethnic barriers. The war reworked systems of gender and sexuality in more complex ways. Prizing both male virtue and women's contributions, wartime culture set the stage for a virtual invention of the “traditional family,” to the detriment of many women and homosexuals. However varied their fortunes, social groups nonetheless had something in common: their fate was now shaped by America's global power and the national...

The State of the Active Teaching and Learning Literature

The State of the Active Teaching and Learning Literature   Reference library

Jeffrey S. Lantis, Kent J. Kille, and Matthew Krain

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,906 words

...textbook examples and participate in actual cases. As Krain and Nurse note ( 2004 :193), “immersing themselves in a real world environment helps them to see the complexity of situations faced by the people with whom they interact. Acting within their own community while learning about broader and less proximate issues helps students see the relevance of [these] issues globally and locally, in theory and in practice.” The service-learning literature has generally provided more careful assessment of this pedagogical technique and its ability to achieve...

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