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Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Mortality

Mortality   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,527 words

...outstanding achievements of the modern era have been the reduction of death rates, the prolongation of human life, and the control and even virtual elimination of many infectious and parasitic diseases. This article aims at a brief discussion of mortality measurement and estimation, data sources, and techniques of analysis followed by a discussion of the history of human mortality. Measurement, Data, and Analysis The standard way to measure and summarize mortality is the calculation of death rates by combining statistical counts of deaths with base populations...

Land Reform and Confiscations

Land Reform and Confiscations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,114 words

...out of the frequent borrowing by poorer peasants from richer ones, leading to concentration of land and former owners working their former land as virtual slaves. Solon's attempt to reconcile the interest of the upper classes—restoration of peace in the face of an impending revolutionary threat—with that of the debtors—cancellation of debts and a redistribution of land—was, not surprisingly, partially unsatisfactory to both groups. His program and that of Pisistratus later were built on a transitory power base; much of the legislation appears to have been...

Book Industry

Book Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,314 words
Illustration(s):
1

... How do readers obtain their books? They buy (from a bookstore, actual or “virtual” on the Internet) or they borrow (from a library—public, school, or other kind). In either case, readers are guided in their selection by choice, advertising, recommendations, and convenience. The United States, as world leader in the number of bookstores and libraries, possesses the best statistics. In 2001 , according to the Bowker Almanac , there were 25,921 bookstores in the United States, including 6,433 general ones. In 2000 , 34 percent of readers purchased...

Cartels and Collusion

Cartels and Collusion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,653 words

...Cartels and Collusion This entry contains four subentries, a historical overview and discussions of concentration and entry, price-fixing and vertical restrications, and price discrimination . Historical Overview A cartel is a formal organization among firms designed to create market power. Although the actual structure of cartels varies greatly, each, essentially, is a collusive agreement among independent firms to coordinate production and distribution jointly, most often in order to restrict output and raise prices. The extent of the cartels'...

Water Transportation

Water Transportation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
17,247 words
Illustration(s):
4

...radically and the industry has undergone considerable consolidation. Technological change The most recent maritime revolution, commencing in the 1960s, was associated with containerization, substantial increases in the size of vessels, and the further development of specialized cargo carriers. It was accompanied by the decline of tramping and conventional cargo-liner services and by the virtual elimination of line-haul sea voyages, as the airlines took over long-distance passenger transport. Technological progress in ship construction and cargo handling...

Great Recession of 2008 and After

Great Recession of 2008 and After   Reference library

David M. Kotz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,421 words

... The previous two economic downturns, in 1990–1991 and 2000–2001 , had been mild and short, and each was preceded by a long expansion, of 92 months in 1982–1990 and of 120 months in 1991–2000 . This led many economists to believe that severe recessions had been confined to the past. In 2007 , Christina D. Romer, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and the chair of the President's Council of Economic Advisers in 2009–2010 , referred in a paper presentation to “the virtual disappearance of the business cycle in the last 25 years,”...

World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...export subsidies and low protection in the developed countries, Indian farmers stand to benefit from liberalization by India. Such liberalization will require specialization in fewer crops and, therefore, some adjustment, but it will be to the eventual overall good. In India and many other developing countries, actual tariffs on industrial products are much higher than applied tariffs. Recently, this has led the developed countries to demand that negotiations be on the actual rather than bound tariff rates. This is a dangerous demand and India has rightly...

Exports and Export Policy

Exports and Export Policy   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...(IT) and virtual trade across naturally separated time zones. Key Export-related Arrangements Voluntary Export Restraint Unrestricted competitive exports can lead to serious problem in the importing countries. The recent public opinion in the US against the import of cheap garments from China, earlier against cars from Japan, and also fairly recently against outsourced services from India, are some well-known examples. With Japan, the US arranged a system called voluntary export restraints or VERs. VER is a policy which voluntarily restricts exports and raises...

Inflation: Experience and Policy

Inflation: Experience and Policy   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,474 words
Illustration(s):
3

...to monitor prices in markets and punish those who break the law. We have enough evidence from around the world to know that this simple approach does not work. While the government may be able to control the prices of a few goods which are supplied by a limited number of large corporations (since these can be monitored relatively easily), to do so for all goods and services is a virtual impossibility. What happens when such across-the-board price controls are attempted is the flourishing of black markets. And also goods tend to vanish from store shelves....

Infrastructure

Infrastructure   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) nor the Competition Commission are seriously concerned with the deleterious effects of price-based subsidies on the efficiency and the distortions and waste in the use of oil resources. Yet there is an attempt to regulate even segments of the business that are not strictly natural monopolies, such as tankage. The Electricity Act, 2003, attempts to bring in open access and competition for the market in generation, with trading as a distinct business, and reduction in cross-subsidies. Yet actual open access...

Federal Reserve

Federal Reserve (USA)   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
6,741 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and interest rate approaches. As such the FOMC appears to adopt a pragmatic approach in analysing the financial condition and the state of the economy when reaching its policy decisions. Fed policy thus steers a path between over-stimulating the economy above the long-term non-inflationary growth path and keeping monetary conditions so tight as to push the economy into an undesirable recession. Note also that the classic twin macro-economic management tools: fiscal and monetary policy have been in imbalance in the USA in recent years, and with a virtual...

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