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Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

marketplace

marketplace   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
84 words

...The space, actual or virtual, in which a market operates; the environment in which goods and services are supplied and purchased. The online, or virtual, marketplace uses a variety of digital channels and websites that enable the conduct of business between buyers and sellers of products, assets, and services without human interaction. There are also exchange-based online marketplaces in which a website service is shared by multiple e-commerce vendors, each having a different speciality, to conduct business online. See also market...

Maslow, Abraham Harold

Maslow, Abraham Harold (1908–70)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
1,850 words

...worth, strength, capability, and adequacy, of being useful and necessary in the world. But thwarting of these needs produces feelings of inferiority, of weakness, and of helplessness. ( Maslow 1954: 45) Ultimately, says Maslow, failure to satisfy these needs when they are dominant can lead to neurosis and personality breakdown. Last of all, says Maslow, there is the need for self-actualization. Even if our physical and social needs are met, even if we are well fed, safe and secure, love and are loved, and have respect and sense of worth, there exists...

Great Recession of 2008 and After

Great Recession of 2008 and After   Reference library

David M. Kotz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,421 words

... The previous two economic downturns, in 1990–1991 and 2000–2001 , had been mild and short, and each was preceded by a long expansion, of 92 months in 1982–1990 and of 120 months in 1991–2000 . This led many economists to believe that severe recessions had been confined to the past. In 2007 , Christina D. Romer, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and the chair of the President's Council of Economic Advisers in 2009–2010 , referred in a paper presentation to “the virtual disappearance of the business cycle in the last 25 years,”...

Federal Reserve

Federal Reserve (USA)   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
6,741 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and interest rate approaches. As such the FOMC appears to adopt a pragmatic approach in analysing the financial condition and the state of the economy when reaching its policy decisions. Fed policy thus steers a path between over-stimulating the economy above the long-term non-inflationary growth path and keeping monetary conditions so tight as to push the economy into an undesirable recession. Note also that the classic twin macro-economic management tools: fiscal and monetary policy have been in imbalance in the USA in recent years, and with a virtual...

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