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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... and virtual A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept according to Deleuze because it presupposes that everything that is real must also be possible (which rules out a great number of conceptual inventions, consigning them to the ontologically lesser category of the unreal, or impossible), and it is unable to explain why that which is possible has not already come into being. For Deleuze, both the actual...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...without reducing the growth of new print publications, and the natural division between modern books and ancient texts has not disappeared. The digitization of new books, of course, is merely a new form of publication, and the digitization of current publications is fraught with legal issues of copyright. On the other hand, the digitization of ancient books and MSS not only provides access to their texts but is closely related to issues of preservation. The future of Chinese digital books and virtual libraries is as unpredictable as the technology that...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between graceful 14 th -century Italian book illustration and the panel paintings and frescos of the early Renaissance; and between the homely, engaging, and sometimes comic miniatures of southern Netherlandish books of around 1500 and the paintings of the Flemish primitives, from the Van Eycks to the Bruegels. That is as one would expect. Often, in fact, they were the same actual craftsmen, working in different media. Most MSS are transcribed from other MSS, and absorb something of their exemplars and of their creator’s own time. The lines of textual...

deprivation

deprivation  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...between people's expectations and their actual condition. Relative deprivation exists under a variety of circumstances, but it almost always involves comparison with a more privileged group. This can be an observation by researchers or something perceived by the deprived population. Considerable research in the United States has been devoted to the issues of social mobility and rising expectations of the quality of life—a virtual article of faith of much of postwar American society. When real gains fail to meet expectations or when prosperity is...

Armament Culture

Armament Culture   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,147 words

...have become colossal media events, suffused with potent imagery. Who could not be astonished by the “fireworks displays,” designed to evoke “shock and awe” during the aerial bombardments in the first and second Gulf wars? Who was not transfixed by the iconographic destruction of the Twin Towers on September 11 2001 ? Indeed these were ultimate postmodern spectacles, blurring the boundaries between virtual and actual war. Baudrillard infamously asserted that the (first) Gulf war did not take place, as it was no longer possible to distinguish war from the...

Meanings, Metaphors, and Myths of Peace

Meanings, Metaphors, and Myths of Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,348 words

...humiliating and must be avenged, whether or not vengeance is taken on the actual perpetrators, less related, or completely unrelated scapegoats. The British were beaten back and the Japanese forced into unconditional surrender. After September 11, Osama bin Laden was unreachable and the Saudi regime untouchable, so American pain and rage were displaced onto Afghanistan, Iraq, and Saddam Hussein, even Iran. War/peace discourse also uses metaphors from other dimensions of life. Family metaphors are important, as in talk about sending our sons and daughters into...

Conflict

Conflict   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,815 words

...the difference between, for instance, a fight between a husband and wife compared with a fight between government and rebel troops. The former data are purged, while the latter are added to an events database. There has been some dispute about whether software programs can be as accurate as human coders. Gary King and Will Lowe ( 2003 ) found, however, that there was little difference in the accuracy of data coded by automation using Virtual Research Associates’ Reader software program and trained undergraduate coders. There is disagreement among scholars...

Security, International

Security, International   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
5,759 words

...Security: An Analytical Survey . London: Lynne Rienner, 2005. Silverstone, Scott . Preventive War and American Democracy . New York and London: Routledge, 2007. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute . http://www.sipri.org . Ullmann, Richard . Redefining Security. International Security 8, no. 1 (1984): 129–153. Virtual War College . http://www.geocities.com/virtualwarcollege . Walt, Stephen . The Relationship between Theory and Policy in International Relations. Annual Review of Political Science , 8 (2005): 23–48. Walt, Stephen . ...

Nonviolent Action

Nonviolent Action   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,202 words

...not meant to be definitive, and new methods have arisen from tactical innovation and the application of new technologies. For example, various forms of hacktivism (i.e., the nonviolent use of illegal or legally ambiguous digital tools in pursuit of political ends, such as virtual sit-ins on Web sites, Web site redirections, and Web site parodies) have emerged in recent years. Sharp divided methods of nonviolent action into three classes: protest and persuasion, noncooperation, and nonviolent intervention ( 1973 ). Protest and persuasion are discursive,...

Art

Art   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
16,627 words

...the twenty-first century. [ See also Creative Arts and Peace ; Evolving Views of Peace ; Films for Peace ; Hiroshima Panels ; Iconography of Peace ; Icons of War and Peace ; Images of Peace and War ; Kollwitz, Käthe ; Propaganda for Peace ; and Propaganda for War ] Bibliography Ades, Dawn , Tim Benton , David Elliott , and Ian Boyd Whyte , eds. Art and Power: Europe under the Dictators 1930–45 . London: Hayward Gallery, 1996. Africa Server Magazine. “Arms into Art. A virtual exhibition in cooperation with Núcleo de Arte in Maputo,...

marketplace

marketplace   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
84 words

...The space, actual or virtual, in which a market operates; the environment in which goods and services are supplied and purchased. The online, or virtual, marketplace uses a variety of digital channels and websites that enable the conduct of business between buyers and sellers of products, assets, and services without human interaction. There are also exchange-based online marketplaces in which a website service is shared by multiple e-commerce vendors, each having a different speciality, to conduct business online. See also market...

Internet

Internet   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
872 words

...connecting researchers to all kinds of digital archives. It is also possible to generate primary data through online surveys and interviews, and to observe social networks and their interactions. See also cyberspace ; digital divide ; virtual globes . Further reading Dodge, M. and Kitchin, R. (2000), Mapping Cyberspace . Hine, C. (2005), Virtual Methods . Kitchin, R. and Dodge, M. (2011), Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life . Warf, B. (2012), Global Geographies of the Internet . Zook, M. (2005), The Geography of the Internet...

Mountains and Rivers Sutra by Japanese Soto Zen Master Dogen Kigen

Mountains and Rivers Sutra by Japanese Soto Zen Master Dogen Kigen (1200–1253)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,710 words

...– virtual treasures hidden in the air, in swamps, and in mountains. To Dogen, mountains are a dynamic practice (actualizing enlightenment according to the precise circumstances of the present moment), they are Buddhist reality (an interrelated “universe-as-the-Dharma” [Sanskrit: dharmadhatu ]), and they are Buddhas and ancestors teaching the unenlightened in each new moment in every way (“investigate the mountains hidden in ‘hiddenness’ ”). Dogen Kigen's Mountains and Rivers Sutra [excerpts] The mountains and waters of this very moment actualize the...

Maslow, Abraham Harold

Maslow, Abraham Harold (1908–70)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
1,850 words

...worth, strength, capability, and adequacy, of being useful and necessary in the world. But thwarting of these needs produces feelings of inferiority, of weakness, and of helplessness. ( Maslow 1954: 45) Ultimately, says Maslow, failure to satisfy these needs when they are dominant can lead to neurosis and personality breakdown. Last of all, says Maslow, there is the need for self-actualization. Even if our physical and social needs are met, even if we are well fed, safe and secure, love and are loved, and have respect and sense of worth, there exists...

Winter, Paul

Winter, Paul (1939)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
899 words

...worship (Albanese 1990 ). By including actual echo and by using “echo” as trope in his music, Winter conjures a sacred antiphonal relationship with the land. This call and response and Winter's play of surfaces and sound evoke a sense of intimacy, a reciprocal love affair between the human and nonhuman world that imbues Winter's composition and performance. In many respects, Winter's commitment to the importance of so-called “natural music” or “Earth music” echoes David Abram 's argument in Spell of the Sensuous that in modernity cultures ultimately end up...

Reagan, Ronald

Reagan, Ronald   Reference library

Stephen R. Routh and Larry Berman

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,339 words

...in late 1983, had devolved into virtual anarchy after years of destructive civil war, and the American troops stationed in Beirut had simply become sitting ducks for Arab militias, ultimately resulting in a suicide bombing killing over two hundred marines and injuring a hundred more (the remaining US troops were removed several months later). Mere days after the Lebanon fiasco, Reagan sent troops to Grenada in order to quell a violent leftist coup that had assassinated the Grenadan prime minister and that was being aided and abetted by the Cuban...

Community

Community   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to redefine community problems and challenge the status quo. Virtual Community Recent advances in electronic communication technology have given rise to a new kind of community called a virtual community (Rheingold, 2000 ). Sometimes called a computer mediated community ( CMC ), a virtual community is a social group that communicates primarily via a computer rather than face-to-face. These communities are called virtual because they function without actual physical contact in cyberspace (Kollock & Smith, 1999 ). Because CMCs are such a recent...

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,054 words

...connections with a mythicized “pioneer” past and wilderness onto which is projected a sacred aura of pristine purity. In the post-industrial world, where virtual reality is increasingly replacing normative reality, the traditional real world is becoming transformed into a realm of fantasy, and experience in nature qua nature is being replaced by actual (e.g., dirt bikes and “personal water craft”) and vicarious thrills. Animals become valued with no understanding of their life cycles and ecological situations and are understood to be utterly divorced from...

Arms Control

Arms Control   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,705 words

...can still escape international detection. Japan has established a “virtual” nuclear arsenal by stockpiling plutonium and developing components for future delivery vehicles, and other states may follow suit. The five original nuclear powers have suspended production of fissionable material for weapons but a treaty on this has been blocked by India and Pakistan. The United States and Russia have sophisticated programs in place to refine their nuclear arsenals without nuclear testing and still possess over 10,000 nuclear weapons apiece. Conventional arms...

Mortality

Mortality   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,527 words

...outstanding achievements of the modern era have been the reduction of death rates, the prolongation of human life, and the control and even virtual elimination of many infectious and parasitic diseases. This article aims at a brief discussion of mortality measurement and estimation, data sources, and techniques of analysis followed by a discussion of the history of human mortality. Measurement, Data, and Analysis The standard way to measure and summarize mortality is the calculation of death rates by combining statistical counts of deaths with base populations...

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