You are looking at 1-13 of 13 entries  for:

  • All: actual and virtual x
clear all

View:

Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

virtual reality

virtual reality n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... reality n . A computer-generated perceptual simulation of a three-dimensional image or environment with which the viewer can interact, often requiring a headset or goggles providing visual stimuli and gloves or other bodily attachments fitted with sensors. In a typical virtual reality display, turning the head produces an appropriate change in what is seen, and moving a hand activates a corresponding movement of an image of a hand in the display. The term, which became popular in the 1980s, is based on the concept of a virtual image in optics, which...

artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,281 words

...since the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Boden, M. A. (1987). Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man (2nd rev. edn.). —— (1990). The Creative Mind . —— (ed.) (1990). The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence . Clark, A. J. (1990). Associative Engines . Cope, D. (2001). Virtual Music . Feigenbaum, E. A. , and Feldman, J. (eds.) (1963). Computers and Thought . Jullam, J. (ed.) (1995). Hybrid Problems, Hybrid Solutions . Levy, S. J. (1992). Artificial Life . McClelland, J. L. , and Rumelhart, D. E. (eds.) (1986). Parallel...

concepts of consciousness

concepts of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,289 words

...its visual information is readily and flexibly available for use by other mental systems in guiding personal behaviour and making reports. If one can report and act in all the relevant ways on the information in that state, then it counts as a conscious perception in the access sense. Narrative consciousness. Normal experience exhibits a narrative structure; it is the ‘story’ of the self. It forms an ongoing and relatively coherent history from the perspective of a more or less unified self, whether actual or merely virtual ( Dennett 1991 ). Only a subset...

artificial intelligence and the study of consciousness

artificial intelligence and the study of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,208 words

...for example, to understand flight by looking at birds' feathers under a microscope. Instead, the analogy continues, we only came to understand natural flight by achieving artificial flight, and we only succeeded in doing that once we stopped trying to copy slavishly the superficial characteristics of biological flyers. Similarly, AI allows one to specify and test the virtual machine that, it is proposed, provides the proper level of analysis for explaining mentality. 4. Difficulties There are several reasons why one might think that AI cannot contribute to the...

consciousness

consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
12,220 words

...do the trick). When a person smells a rose, he responds to what's happening at his nostrils with a ‘virtual action pattern’: one of a set of action patterns that originated far back in evolutionary history as evaluative responses to various kinds of stimulation at the body surface—wriggles of acceptance or rejection. In modern human beings these responses are still directed to the site of stimulation, and still retain vestiges of their original function and hedonic tone; but today, instead of carrying through into overt behaviour, they have become closed off...

Surgical Performance from a Psychological Perspective

Surgical Performance from a Psychological Perspective   Reference library

Aidan Moran, Nick Sevdalis, and Lauren Wallace

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...systems) cognitive simulation process that enables us to represent perceptual information in our minds in the absence of actual sensory input ( Munzert, Lorey, & Zentgraf, 2009 ). Technically, it involves the “voluntary retrieval and representation of sensory information from memory” ( Pearson, 2014 , p. 178) in the absence of a direct external stimulus. In other words, imagery enables us to create virtual experiences of sights, sounds, and perceptions of things that are neither present in our environment nor actually happening to us at that moment ( Moran &...

Prospective Memory and Cognitive Aging

Prospective Memory and Cognitive Aging   Reference library

Simon J. Haines, Jill Talley Shelton, Julie D. Henry, Gill Terrett, Thomas Vorwerk, and Peter G. Rendell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,266 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A. J. , & Rose, N. S. (2010). Exercising the brain to avoid cognitive decline: Examining the evidence . Aging Health , 6 , 565–584. Rendell, P. G. , & Craik, F. I. (2000). Virtual week and actual week: Age-related differences in prospective memory . Applied Cognitive Psychology , 14 , 43–62. Rendell, P. G. , & Henry, J. D. (2009). A review of virtual week for prospective memory assessment: Clinical implications . Brain Impairment , 10 , 14–22. Rendell, P. G. , Jensen, F. , & Henry, J. D. (2007). Prospective memory in multiple sclerosis...

Cognition and Mobility With Aging

Cognition and Mobility With Aging   Reference library

Karen Z. H. Li, Halina Bruce, and Rachel Downey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
6,709 words

...examine the effect of combined physical and cognitive training on gait. Although sequentially combined cognitive and aerobic training is beneficial to single- and dual-task walking speed, recent work suggests that it is no more beneficial than single-modality cognitive or aerobic training protocols ( Fraser et al., 2017 ). Another multimodal approach to training involves virtual reality walking, which adds a multisensory component by which to improve gait in older adults. In a study comparing the added effect of virtual reality to treadmill training, it was...

Technology Use by Older Adults

Technology Use by Older Adults   Reference library

Sara J. Czaja and Chin Chin Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
6,331 words
Illustration(s):
6

...technology skills, photography, and cooking, among others. There are also formal online degree programs and opportunities to be linked via videoconferencing and networking facilities to actual classrooms. Githens ( 2007 ) classified e-learning programs for older adults into three categories: programs for personal growth and change, workforce development programs, and workplace learning programs. He points out that older adults participate in educational opportunities for multiple purposes at different phases of their life and thus participate in varying types...

Gambling in Sport and Performance Psychology

Gambling in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Loredana A. Marchica and Jeffrey L. Derevensky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...and Canada alone participated in some form of fantasy sports wagering in 2017 ( Fantasy Sports Trade Association, 2017 ). Players in FSLs essentially function as virtual managers of their respective teams and try to use a wide variety of data and statistics on the performance of actual players to either draft or bid on players to form their teams. According to the Fantasy Sports Trade Association (FSTA), in 2017 the average age of most fantasy sports players was 38 years old, with 70% of these individuals engaged in fantasy sports with monetary fees and...

Religion and Spirituality in Sport

Religion and Spirituality in Sport   Reference library

Ivo Jirásek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...children and younger generations: the preference for a virtual existence over reality, sedentary behavior, obesity as a global pandemic, the prevalence of pornography, and impotence in social communication. Sport connects human beings with reality, personal wholeness, and interpersonal relations; helps to transcend everydayness and routine; and encourages us to overcome ourselves and develop a richer life. People are looking for the deeper, spiritual values found in human movement activities. In this context, the increasing interest in religious and spiritual...

Aging and Cognitive Skill Learning

Aging and Cognitive Skill Learning   Reference library

Jack Kuhns and Dayna R. Touron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
9,540 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and Aging , 30 (4), 809–823. Rendell, P. G. , & Craik, F. I. M. (2000). Virtual week and actual week: Age-related differences in prospective memory . Applied Cognitive Psychology , 14 , 43–62. Rickard, T. C. (1997). Bending the power law: A CMPL theory of strategy shifts and the automatization of cognitive skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 126 , 288–311. Rickard, T. C. , & Bourne, L. E., Jr. (1995). An identical-elements model of basic arithmetic skills. In A. F. Healy & L. E. Bourne, Jr. (Eds.), Learning and...

Modeling in Sport and Performance

Modeling in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Barbi Law, Phillip Post, and Penny McCullagh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

..., & Rabinowitz, E. (2008). Observational learning of fly casting using traditional and virtual modeling with and without authority figure . Perceptual and Motor Skills , 107 , 535–546. Kingsbury, J. H. , & Tauer, J. M. (2009). The ESPN effect: How slam dunks affect individualism and optimism for athletic success . International Journal of Sport Communication , 2 , 21–35. Kitsantas, A. , Zimmerman, B. J. , & Cleary, T. (2000). The role of observation and emulation in the development of athletic self-regulation . Journal of Educational...

View: