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Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

VO

VO   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
51 words

...abbr. for virtual organization; a concept derived from computer science and comprising people from a variety of actual organizations. One example of a VO would be those involved in different aspects of a large engineering design project. Another would be those involved in, for example, a large genome annotation...

virtual reality

virtual reality   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
837 words
Illustration(s):
1

...upwards when they are dropped! Finally, a significant proportion of people who view virtual worlds using helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) suffer from the side-effects of VR sickness , common symptoms of which include eye-strain, nausea, and a loss of balance. VR sickness seems to be related to motion sickness and has many contributory causes. One is the vestibular conflicts which are caused by the (small) time delays that occur between a person's actual bodily movements and the HMD being updated to reflect those movements. Another is the optical quality of the...

spectator

spectator   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
930 words

...to entering the war and significant pro-German sentiment. The studies concluded that the soldiers did not understand the films and were left bemused. The films contained too much historical contextualization for the audiences to understand, and the researchers argued that the messages needed to be simplified. Before these studies, the role a spectator played in the creation of meaning was considered secondary to the actual message. After these studies, the role and experience of spectators became a major concern of social scientists and of many humanities...

cinematography and the body

cinematography and the body   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,619 words

...claims and descriptions. It has also prompted some film scholars to turn to experimental physiology and psychology to gain a better understanding of what ‘really’ happens when we watch and understand films. In this latest, and equally controversial, stage of film theory, the moving image has perhaps returned to its origins, as a by-product of mid-nineteenth-century enthusiasm to explore perceptual phenomena and of technology's ability to exploit them. Meanwhile, the total manipulation of digital image and sound and their use in the simulation of ‘virtual...

Simulations of Evolution

Simulations of Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and subsequent selection, and those in which the nature of the evolution process itself, as well as its influence on the products of evolution, is the object of inquiry. In general, simulation refers to a technique in which a process and the relevant variables are abstracted mathematically, so that they can be studied, usually, but not necessarily, on a computer. Strictly speaking, simulations of evolution are not really simulations (as opposed to, say, the simulation of a tornado) because the actual rules of evolution are implemented and act on...

Brain Size Evolution

Brain Size Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,151 words
Illustration(s):
2

...methods are tried and true, they do not work well on partial skulls or endocasts, and preparation of the latter may damage fragile fossils. These problems can be addressed by applying medical imaging techniques such as three-dimensional computed tomography ( 3D-CT ) to the study of fossil braincases. With 3D-CT, we can scan a skull without damaging it and then use the data to generate, rotate, and measure a three-dimensional image of its endocast on a computer screen. Glenn Conroy and colleagues have validated the use of such “virtual endocasts” for...

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