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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

intention

intention   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
613 words

...an end. Such intention may be ‘actual’, if one wills with conscious attention; ‘virtual’, if one continues to will in virtue of an antecedent decision, though at the moment not consciously aware of it; ‘habitual’, if all voluntary action has ceased but without the original decision being revoked; and ‘interpretative’, if a certain intention is ascribed to a person who has no opportunity to confirm or deny the imputation. The intention influences the morality of an action. A good intention makes a morally indifferent action good and increases the worth of an...

Reader-Response Criticism

Reader-Response Criticism   Reference library

Kathy Reiko Maxwell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,815 words

...competent reader, the superreader, the composite reader, the average reader, the encoded reader, the actual reader, the flesh-and-blood reader” ( Fowler 1991 , p. 26), the ancient reader—including in that context the Jewish/gentile reader, the wealthy/poor reader, the male/female reader, the virginal reader, the jaded reader, the later reader, the modern reader, the virtual reader, the fit reader, the hearer, the audience, and so on. Psychological, social, and cultural factors in the reader’s experience are welcomed as essential components of the reading...

Clement, Letters of

Clement, Letters of   Reference library

Clayton N. Jefford

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,615 words

...heritage of faith and raises the problem of the internal dissension that has occurred there in recent days (1.1—3.4). A virtual panegyric of the Christian lifestyle follows in which the writer notes the dangers that are inherent in jealousy and division, the importance of repentance, the virtues of obedience, faith, piety, hospitality, humility, and peace, and the promises of salvation that God offers for those who live a holy lifestyle (4.1—39.9). In response, specific attention is directed toward the need for divine regulation and universal love within...

Ezra and Nehemiah

Ezra and Nehemiah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,101 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it. However, scholars since Spinoza (seventeenth century) have credited Ezra, not Moses, with the final composing and/or editing of the Pentateuch. Recent analyses of the formation of the Pentateuch challenge crucial aspects of this view (note Grabbe's suggestive title: “The Law of Moses in the Ezra Tradition: More Virtual than Real?” Grabbe 2001b ). Some propose a considerably later date for the final form of the Pentateuch, with Ezra and the Persian period as a pivotal nexus at the beginning of a process that extended well into the Hellenistic period...

Japanese Interpretation

Japanese Interpretation   Reference library

Tomohiro Omiya

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,326 words

...Tagawa argued that Paul reversed actual facts and transformed them into virtual conceptions ( Hihanteki Shutai no Keisei 1980 ). Citing 1 Corinthians 7:29–31 , Tagawa suggested that Paul did not actually deny “the world” based on facts but only pretended to deny it. For example, Paul did not ask that his readers give up their possessions but only pretend to give them up. Furthermore, citing 1 Corinthians 7:21–22 , (freedom given by the Lord), Tagawa suggested that this freedom was acquired in a virtual sphere that willingly accepted slavery...

Rabbinic Literature

Rabbinic Literature   Reference library

Alan J. Avery-Peck, Lieve M. Teugels, and Joshua Ezra Burns

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,615 words

...though a worthy counterpoint to that of Strack and Billerbeck, was no less questionable in its method. The method of selective comparison conceived by Strack and Billerbeck and by Moore set the agenda for the great comparative project that would take hold of New Testament scholarship in the wake of the Holocaust. Its potential for theological controversy effectively neutralized, the notion that the literature of the Jewish sages took shape in the same general environment as the New Testament became a virtual axiom of both their studies. Vital contributions...

Job

Job   Reference library

Brennan W. Breed and C. Davis Hankins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,664 words
Illustration(s):
1

...daughters receive alongside their unnamed brothers ( 42:15 ) may in fact betray Job's commitment to creating a more just and egalitarian world. But this is at best only a hint; the author leaves the actual events of Job's remaining one hundred and forty years to our imagination ( 42:16–17 ). Reception. The book of Job's unusual diction and esoteric arguments are notoriously challenging to decipher. Yet its poetic beauty, bold questions, and the tantalizing possibility of insight into the problem of undeserved suffering have kept readers engaged for millennia....

Mountains and Rivers Sutra by Japanese Soto Zen Master Dogen Kigen

Mountains and Rivers Sutra by Japanese Soto Zen Master Dogen Kigen (1200–1253)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,710 words

...– virtual treasures hidden in the air, in swamps, and in mountains. To Dogen, mountains are a dynamic practice (actualizing enlightenment according to the precise circumstances of the present moment), they are Buddhist reality (an interrelated “universe-as-the-Dharma” [Sanskrit: dharmadhatu ]), and they are Buddhas and ancestors teaching the unenlightened in each new moment in every way (“investigate the mountains hidden in ‘hiddenness’ ”). Dogen Kigen's Mountains and Rivers Sutra [excerpts] The mountains and waters of this very moment actualize the...

Winter, Paul

Winter, Paul (1939)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
899 words

...worship (Albanese 1990 ). By including actual echo and by using “echo” as trope in his music, Winter conjures a sacred antiphonal relationship with the land. This call and response and Winter's play of surfaces and sound evoke a sense of intimacy, a reciprocal love affair between the human and nonhuman world that imbues Winter's composition and performance. In many respects, Winter's commitment to the importance of so-called “natural music” or “Earth music” echoes David Abram 's argument in Spell of the Sensuous that in modernity cultures ultimately end up...

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya (1901–74)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
2,417 words

...dyads and values; in the second the Absolute Being, namely God, who surrounds and surpasses the previous ones. Since the Absolute Being cannot be known but believed, then the method that leads to this belief is ‘virtual intuition’. Here Hilmi Ziya makes a distinction between actual and virtual intuition. The actual intuition acting within consciousness and time cannot apprehend the Absolute Being. However, virtual intuition conjoining the experienced with what is perceived and realities with the ideal may apprehend the Absolute Being at the same time and in the...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Norman Golb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
1,950 words

...Sea Scrolls With the virtual ending of basic publication of the Judaean Desert scrolls, it has become possible in recent years to consider, with some degree of rational perception, various genres of texts created by the ancient authors of these manuscripts. The genres include such categories as lists of sequestered valuables, hymns of thanksgiving, descriptions of imaginary battles between good and evil forces, commentaries and expansions on writings of the biblical literature, apocryphal writings featuring patriarchal figures, calendaric disquisitions,...

Hoogstraeten, Jacob van

Hoogstraeten, Jacob van (1460–1527)   Reference library

Arnoud Visser

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,472 words

...This is reflected in the selection of mostly exegetical and doctrinal works, and in the virtual absence of the Confessions , or De civitate Dei . Secondly, the perspective on Aug. is to a large extent dictated by H.'s main opponents, Evangelicals and humanists. For example, the strong focus on anti-Pelagian, rather than anti-Donatist, works in the Colloquia may seem surprising in view of H.'s emphasis on obedience to the Church and the sacraments. In doing so tried to...

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,054 words

...connections with a mythicized “pioneer” past and wilderness onto which is projected a sacred aura of pristine purity. In the post-industrial world, where virtual reality is increasingly replacing normative reality, the traditional real world is becoming transformed into a realm of fantasy, and experience in nature qua nature is being replaced by actual (e.g., dirt bikes and “personal water craft”) and vicarious thrills. Animals become valued with no understanding of their life cycles and ecological situations and are understood to be utterly divorced from...

Cobb, John B., Jr.

Cobb, John B., Jr. (1925)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,319 words

...part by the breakdown of the earlier deism and in part by the rejection of metaphysics in the extremely influential philosophy of Immanuel Kant . This move entailed the virtual disappearance of the natural world from consideration. Where it did appear, as in Albrecht Ritschl, it represented the sphere over which human beings were to exercise their mastery. Popular Protestant piety and its conservative theological expressions did not go so far in this anthropocentric direction. The deistic argument from the order and beauty of the world to God as supreme...

Zhuangzi

Zhuangzi   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,057 words

...Chinese equivalent to the Western term “nature” (“nature” commonly understood as the material, nonhumanmade elements on Earth). Yet the text makes constant lyrical use of actual plant, animal, meteorological, and geographical phenomena, sometimes as virtual beings, often as metaphorical devices. Usually the obvious linkage or equivalence is made by the reader between Western “nature” and Zhuangzi's concept of dao (the “Way” or “flow” of reality). Many readers also “read into” Zhuangzi's dao the entire conceptual structure of Laozi's Daode-jing ( dao,...

Ethnoarchaeology

Ethnoarchaeology   Reference library

Thomas W. Davis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,146 words
Illustration(s):
1

...parks and specialized tourist itineraries emphasizing religious and/or historical events have been created. Experimental archaeology, which comes under the rubric of ethnoarchaeology, is a particularly valuable tool in the public presentation of archaeological remains. On occasion, excavation at a site or monument is halted to allow for the preservation and presentation of a particular historical moment in the history of the occupation of the site, despite unanswered questions. Interpretive re-creation of such a site, whether in virtual or in actual reality,...

Israel and Environmentalism

Israel and Environmentalism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,842 words

...as pesticide registration, drinking water, and auto-emission standard setting and oversight. Politically, the position of Environmental Minister has had low prestige, with some eight Ministers filling the position during its first fourteen years. Yet, the Ministry's competent professional staff boast impressive achievements in several important areas. In response to the severity of the environmental insults, a virtual explosion of new environmental organizations has emerged at both the local and national level. Life and Environment, the umbrella group for...

Natural History as Natural Religion

Natural History as Natural Religion   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,565 words

...Greek and other forms of European paganism as nature-friendly, but the Olympic religion of ancient Greece (and copycat Rome) was long dead – whether nature-friendly or not is of course moot. The Greco-Roman legacy that shaped modern Western civilization is the legacy of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy and proto-science, the legacy of Plato and Aristotle, of Democritus and Lucretius. A virtual cottage industry of critical environmental philosophy sprang up almost overnight. In addition to Plato and Aristotle, Descartes was routinely hacked and flayed, as...

Evidence

Evidence   Reference library

Chaya T. Halberstam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,270 words

...as witnesses, even though Josephus and the early rabbis do disqualify them. The story of Naboth’s vineyard indicates that providing more than one witness may have been a common practice in ancient Israel and/or constituted a virtual assurance of winning one’s case. Moreover, it reveals the susceptibility of such a practice in evidentiary law to corruption: “The two scoundrels … brought a charge against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying, ‘Naboth cursed God and the king.’ So they took him outside the city, and stoned him to death” ( 1 Kgs 21:13 )....

Antioch on the Orontes

Antioch on the Orontes   Reference library

Andrea U. De Giorgi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,480 words

...to identify the ways by which Antiochene Jews contributed to the forging of a unique city and to the heightening of its profile; one should not neglect that by the third century c.e. the small, unassuming Seleucid city on the Orontes had become the virtual capital of the Roman oikoumene (inhabited world). Jewish communities had been instrumental in the building and evolution of the city since its inception, when Seleucid veterans and captives settled in the region and participated in the construction of the city. Babylonian Jews who had gained distinction...

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