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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

art, contemporary

art, contemporary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
425 words

...as well as the use of artefacts of Pop culture, as a varied means to actualize contents. The new canon is Duchampian: anything has the potential to be art. Today, artworks are often barely recognizable as ‘art’. For example some contemporary artists have built houses, cooked dinners, planted gardens, or parked cars at the museum as artworks. This merging with the world is one way of making artworks critically relevant to a fluid culture that is ahistorically adrift in a virtual space of promiscuous signifiers. Prof. Bergeth Tregenza Arthur Danto , The...

White, Thomas

White, Thomas (1593–1676)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,913 words

...their proposed ‘circumcising of papal authority’, and with their virtual abandonment of Jesuits and others who would never subscribe to their proposed renunciation of central control, it is small wonder that White and the Blackloists were reportedly detested in Rome no less than the Protestants themselves. Their influence, however, continued even after White's own discomfiture in 1660 : it was still found necessary in 1670 for Rome to require the English Chapter formally to renounce White's doctrines, and John Sergeant , having acted as the leading...

Histories of British Philosophy

Histories of British Philosophy   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
8,087 words

...and Legislation , Halévy provides a careful exposition of the youthful Bentham's principles, juridical philosophy and politico-economic theories. In the second volume, he explores the evolution of the doctrine of utility from 1789 to 1815 , targeting the political and economic questions of the times. His focus in the third volume is the actual development of philosophical radicalism from the end of the eighteenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth, together with Bentham's impact upon it. Halévy and Stephen together offer a very comprehensive and...

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality   Reference library

Michael Heim

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,469 words

...potential as an art form, virtual reality will necessarily explore degrees of realism and of verisimilitude. What complicates the issue is the broad spread of disciplines from which virtual reality draws its sustenance: virtual reality combines art with technology, psychology with computer science, and electrical engineering with metaphysics. Another related problem is how to bridge the gap between the great expectations raised by the virtual reality concept and the actual achievements of research. The most widely available virtual reality systems in the early...

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality   Reference library

Horea Avram

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,317 words
Illustration(s):
1

...projects, the work is concerned with immersivity, depth of field, and the “perfect” illusion: the virtual objects are rendered tridimensionally, image’s flatness is replaced by profoundness, and immersion substitutes arm’s-length visual experience. The viewer seems to be literally inside the convergent space, among the objects and images (real and virtual), and not in a detached, “cinematic” mode of perception. Another type of AR use is projective solutions (through spatial displays): the actual site of the work is used as a projection surface, therefore...

Ecphrasis

Ecphrasis   Reference library

John Hollander

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,414 words

...in notional ecphrasis still operate in actual ones (e.g., notions of centrality and peripherality in describing an image; ways in which texts construct virtual scanning processes ad hoc only to their own occasions; and the devices by which temporality, in a text’s unfolding over time, is figuratively made to deal with spatiality). Then, too, the impulse to produce poetic vividness that would stand in for an absent image is in some ways not too far from constructing a sort of verbal screen between a viewer’s eye and the picture or sculpture in question. W....

Computer Art

Computer Art   Reference library

Timothy Binkley

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,146 words

...like realities than representations because we can reach into them and change them. Simulation is superseding mimesis as the paradigm of representation because computers change the process of articulation from actual to virtual specification. The second main feature of computer art is its interactivity. The raison d’être of the computer is to compute, so the numbers delineating virtual existence are eminently pliable. With the right interface, one can move virtual objects in virtual space and manipulate them in myriad ways, even metamorphosing them into their...

Cyberspace

Cyberspace   Reference library

Michael Heim

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,235 words

...From the viewpoint of phenomenology, cyberspace can mimic or resemble actual physical buildings, or it can support more dimensions than any actual physical topography. With a sufficient bandwidth of sensory stimuli, cyberspace can also generate virtual realities or fully immersive environments. As dataspace, however, cyberspace is not a universal simulator but a vast space for high-speed travel. Cyberspace is not itself a virtual reality, but it is the void in which virtual entities can appear. The image of the data highway through cyberspace has...

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya (1901–74)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
2,417 words

...dyads and values; in the second the Absolute Being, namely God, who surrounds and surpasses the previous ones. Since the Absolute Being cannot be known but believed, then the method that leads to this belief is ‘virtual intuition’. Here Hilmi Ziya makes a distinction between actual and virtual intuition. The actual intuition acting within consciousness and time cannot apprehend the Absolute Being. However, virtual intuition conjoining the experienced with what is perceived and realities with the ideal may apprehend the Absolute Being at the same time and in the...

Imagination

Imagination   Reference library

Wolfgang Iser, Susan L. Feagin, and Julia Jansen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,145 words

...which the intensity of “simulacra” makes impossible the distinction between the actual and the virtual, or the real and the fictional, with far-reaching and alarming political consequences. This view also blurs the distinction between images and imagining, which is central to Husserl’s account. Husserl distinguishes between imagination and “image consciousness ( Bildbewusstsein ),” that is, between imagining something and being aware of something as an image. Not foreseeing the kinds of problems Baudrillard identifies as critical for our time, Husserl still...

Deleuze, Gilles

Deleuze, Gilles   Reference library

James Williams and Ronald Bogue

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,141 words

...and when we remember something, we leap from the present into a different temporal domain, that of a “virtual past” in which all past moments coexist. It is not memory that is within us, but we who are within the vast sea of memory. Since the passage from the actual present to the virtual past can afford no gap, argues Bergson, there must be a present moment of the past, and hence every actual present moment must have a coexisting double, a present virtual past. In modern cinema, according to Deleuze, certain directors create images in which the actual...

Lukács, György

Lukács, György (1885–1971)   Reference library

György Márkus

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,574 words

...in the homogenization, intensive stylization, and autonomization of the everyday schemes of communication. But precisely because of this forming, the perfect work of art—an objectivization in which all the opposition between the meaning-creating form and the experienceable content, between the subjective and the objective, disappears—constitutes a self-enclosed totality that in itself is elevated above, and insulated from, the actual, always heterogeneous, and contingent experiences both of the author and of the recipient. Lukács’s early aesthetics, one of...

Computing, Aesthetic

Computing, Aesthetic   Reference library

Edward A. Shanken

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,513 words

...with and potentially experiencing forms of telematically enhanced, collective consciousness. Several decades later, the tendency to abstract the concrete materiality of things into ephemeral information that Burnham, Ascott, and others identified in the 1960s is reflected and amplified in recent phenomena that equally challenge conventional technological, economic, and cultural constructs: open-source development and the gift economy, various forms of participatory culture including interactive art, social media, and multiuser virtual worlds (e.g.,...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Norman Golb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
1,950 words

...Sea Scrolls With the virtual ending of basic publication of the Judaean Desert scrolls, it has become possible in recent years to consider, with some degree of rational perception, various genres of texts created by the ancient authors of these manuscripts. The genres include such categories as lists of sequestered valuables, hymns of thanksgiving, descriptions of imaginary battles between good and evil forces, commentaries and expansions on writings of the biblical literature, apocryphal writings featuring patriarchal figures, calendaric disquisitions,...

Langer, Susanne Knauth

Langer, Susanne Knauth (1895–1985)   Reference library

Forest Hansen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,762 words

...are engrossed in the work (the image, the virtual object), not diverted from it, and vice versa. One stated implication of this thesis set Langer apart from many previous aestheticians and art theorists (though it harmonized with the position of the New Critics of literary theory): that creative causes and responding effects are largely or wholly irrelevant in aesthetic theory. This is at odds as well with much present-day aesthetic (and especially literary) theory. But Langer makes an eloquent and persuasive case, and contemporary thinkers might well profit...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Christopher S. Wood and Michael Kubovy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,651 words
Illustration(s):
9

...will appear distorted and therefore correct. It has been argued that the discovery of perspective by Brunelleschi and Alberti, together with the writings of Piero, Leonardo, and Dürer, represented a singular moment when the fine arts made an actual contribution to the history of science. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many more artists and amateurs wrote treatises on perspective. Some of the most important were Jean Cousin’s “Livre de perspective” ( 1560 ), Daniele Barbaro’s “La pratica della perspettiva” ( 1569 ), and Giacomo da Vignola’s “Le...

Habit

Habit   Reference library

Aron Vinegar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,316 words

...or contracting and absorbing the world into us. Although habit is seen as absorptive and immediate—beyond or before reflection—it has also been seen as the primary mechanism that posits and produces a semipermeable boundary that would inaugurate our emergence from sensory immersion and immediate reaction, thus forging a crucial step toward abstract thought, generalization, virtuality, judgment, and the construction of a second autonomous nature. Habit is thus seen as the crucial threshold where the body might cease to be a foreign object and become imbricated...

Temporality

Temporality   Reference library

Espen Hammer

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,709 words

...through which the viewer is exposed to their recollections, often of highly affective-laden and consequential situations, yet also sometimes of fantasy or dream. Whatever present actuality one is exposed to is then suffused with these images to the point of being itself virtual. In Tarkovsky’s cinema there is thus no clear demarcation line between “subjective” and “objective” experience, dream and reality, fiction and documentarism, or even between past, present, and future. There are many challenges to such interrelationalist accounts of how works of art are...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Richard Brilliant and Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,834 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in Greek art, and “Homer” himself may never have existed. The classical “Homer” can be differentiated from Dickens’s Fagin, who existed only in fictive time, but they do share many features of inventive characterization. More closely, perhaps, the fictive image of “Homer” resembles those actual personages whose participatory appearance in historical novels imparts an air of veracity, or authenticity, especially in the figures of Napoleon and the Russian generals in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace , Walter Scott’s medieval English kings and nobles, and Gore Vidal’s...

Image Theory

Image Theory   Reference library

Sunil Manghani

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,397 words

...image-making into the classroom—not just in theory but in actual practice” (p. 158). He argues the making of images (from drawing and painting to video editing) ought to be practiced in the same seminar rooms where historical and interpretative work takes place. Otherwise, there will always remain a gulf between making and thinking about images; and at worst, “[image] theory will be able to consolidate the notion that study is sufficient to the understanding of images, and independent of actual making” (p. 159). Image Studies. In defining “image studies”...

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