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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Current Version:
2010

... and virtual A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept according to Deleuze because it presupposes that everything that is real must also be possible (which rules out a great number of conceptual inventions, consigning them to the ontologically lesser category of the unreal, or impossible), and it is unable to explain why that which is possible has not already come into being. For Deleuze, both the actual...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual  

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept ...
nomadology

nomadology  

Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's utopian project outlined in Mille Plateaux (1980), translated as A Thousand Plateaus (1987). The origin of the word ‘nomad’ is not, as many have assumed, a ...
dispositif

dispositif  

An organization of statements. The term is used by Michel Foucault to describe the systemic connection of statements. It is for this reason often translated as ‘apparatus’, although this doesn't ...
reality-testing

reality-testing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Current Version:
2010

... ( Realitätsprüfung ) The process by which we discriminate between external and internal stimuli, that is to say between perceptions of actual objects in the world and hallucinations of non-real or virtual objects. It operates in the conscious part of the psychical apparatus. It is not, however, foolproof—e.g. someone in the grip of psychosis is incapable of...

reality-testing

reality-testing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

... ( Realitätsprüfung ) The process by which we discriminate between external and internal stimuli, that is to say between perceptions of actual objects in the world and hallucinations of non-real or virtual objects. It operates in the conscious part of the psychical apparatus. It is not, however, foolproof—e.g. someone in the grip of psychosis is incapable of...

actual

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...and the virtual are fully real—the former has concrete existence, while the latter does not, but it is no less real for that fact. The importance of this distinction can readily be seen by giving thought to the state of being of an idea: it may only exist in our heads, or on paper, but its effects are fully real and may also be fully actual too. Initially treated as an esoteric distinction of interest only to specialists in the field of ontology , since the advent of computer games, and more especially the Internet, this distinction has become very important...

dispositif

dispositif   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Current Version:
2010

...by Michel Foucault to describe the systemic connection of statements. It is for this reason often translated as ‘apparatus’, although this doesn't really work as it is a virtual process rather than an actual entity. Its nearest cognate is probably Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari 's concept of the assemblage (certainly their writing suggests that they appropriated the concept and made it their own). Further Reading: C. O'Farrell Michel Foucault ...

nomadology

nomadology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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2010

...the primitive society without a state on the one hand and the so-called civilized imperial state on the other. What is crucial about the concept of the despot, however, is the fact that in Deleuze and Guattari's description it refers to a latent state of being, meaning it is virtual and presupposed, but never actual. Like the despot, then, the figure of the nomad stands for the power of the virtual, or what they call the war machine . The nomad is a tendency towards deterritorialization , Deleuze and Guattari argue, that can be found to some degree in all...

interpellation

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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2018

...individual and collective identity. But this process should not be thought of as a kind of becoming; for Althusser, ideology is eternal, so one is always already interpellated, or, to put it another way, ideology has no outside—one is always already inside ideology. The pivotal notion of misrecognition is drawn from French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan ’s account of the mirror stage in the developmental psychology of very young children. Althusser hypothesizes that just as babies look in the mirror and misrecognize their virtual image as their actual self, so...

dispositif

dispositif   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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2018

...of statements and things. The term is used by Michel Foucault in his work on governmentality to describe the non-systemic connection of heterogeneous statements that exists in a contemporary formation such as the law which combines the discourse of law along with the architecture of courthouses, the costuming of judges and lawyers, as well as the administrative measures required to maintain it all. It is for this reason often translated as ‘apparatus’, although this does not really work as it is a virtual process rather than an actual entity. As Agamben...

nomadology

nomadology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...the primitive society without a state on the one hand and the so-called civilized imperial state on the other. What is crucial about the concept of the despot, however, is the fact that in Deleuze and Guattari’s description it refers to a latent state of being, meaning it is virtual and presupposed, but never actual. Like the despot, then, the figure of the nomad stands for the power of the virtual, or what they call the war machine . The nomad is a tendency towards deterritorialization , Deleuze and Guattari argue, that can be found to some degree in all...

interpellation

interpellation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Current Version:
2010

...conditions of ideology individuals misrecognize socially produced virtual representations as their actual self. This concept (directly and indirectly) has been used to great effect by a variety of radical minority groups to argue the social and cultural importance of affirmative representations of politically marginalized groups. See also hegemony ; ideological state apparatus ; imagined community . Further Reading: L. Althusser Lenin and Philosophy ...

non-representational theory

non-representational theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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2018

...of that other person); it gives consideration to actual and virtual entities as well as entities that are present or absent. Ultimately, it may be said that non-representational theory is a theory of emergence; it is interested in the coming-into-being and the individuation of bodies, affects, subjects, and practices. and it tracks these wherever they may be found, regardless of how mundane or ordinary. Further Reading: B. Anderson and P. Harrison Taking-Place: Non-Representational Theories and Geography ...

code

code   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Current Version:
2010

...time. 3. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari deploy the notion of coding in L'Anti-Oedipe ( 1972 ), translated as Anti-Oedipus ( 1977 ), to analyse the way desire is captured and channelled by social institutions. Coding subordinates the individual to the collective. It takes both an actual and virtual form—tribal tattoos, scarification, and so forth which renders group identity visible, but also collective belief in higher powers such as totems, and gods. They specify three separate processes: coding (the installation and policing of belief),...

code

code   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...time. 3. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari deploy the notion of coding in L’Anti-Oedipe ( 1972 ), translated as Anti-Oedipus ( 1977 ), to analyse the way desire is captured and channelled by social institutions. Coding subordinates the individual to the collective. It takes both an actual and virtual form—tribal tattoos, scarification, and so forth which renders group identity visible, but also collective belief in higher powers such as totems, and gods. They specify three separate processes: coding (the installation and policing of belief),...

Simmel, Georg

Simmel, Georg (1858–1918)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Current Version:
2010

...religion, and even science; (ii) the nature and structural properties of social forms; (iii) personality types such as the outsider. Simmel's work hinges on the distinction he develops between form and content in a cultural setting. For Simmel, content is essentially unavailable to us except through the lens of forms, which are the functional equivalent of Immanuel Kant's categories. Forms give content a determinate and determining existence. For instance, music is a cultural form that has evolved from an actual set of practices into a virtual entity by...

assemblage

assemblage   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...also taps into a discursive system of laws as well as ways of thinking about criminals and criminality that determines not only who should be in prison, but also for how long and for what reason. The prison and the justice system (as it might be called) are integrated, to be sure, but they are separate entities that evolve independently of each other. The key to understanding it, though, is the fact that the assemblage itself is virtual, even though its contents may be actual. The structure of the assemblage, which they elaborate in Mille Plateaux ( 1980 ),...

Simmel, Georg

Simmel, Georg (1858–1918)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...By form, Simmel meant the patterned ways people interact with each other and structure their everyday lives , which provides the material for what he considered to be content. For Simmel, content is essentially unavailable to us except through the lens of forms, which are the functional equivalent of Immanuel Kant ’s categories. Forms give content a determinate and determining existence. For instance, music is a cultural form that has evolved from an actual set of practices into a virtual entity by which we judge sound to be either sheer noise or something...

Lacan, Jacques

Lacan, Jacques (1901–81)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Current Version:
2010

...France and abroad over theoretical issues as well as his refusal to desist from his controversial practice of shortening analytic sessions to as little as 10 minutes instead of the IPA prescribed 60 minutes resulted in his being ostracized by a large proportion of the professional psychoanalytic community. In 1964 , he founded his own group, École Freudienne de Paris (The Freudian School of Paris), and broke definitively with both the national and international psychoanalytic statutory bodies. The membership list of this new school reads as a virtual who's...

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