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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Roses, Wars of the

Roses, Wars of the   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
391 words

...and battles that took place between 1455 and 1487 . They are so called because of the notion that, fought between the dynasties of Lancaster and York, Lancaster was represented by a red rose, York by a white. In fact the idea of the warring roses was invented by Henry VII after he seized the throne in 1485 . While the actual phrase ‘Wars of the Roses’ did not appear until the 19th cent., the idea of the warring roses was rooted in Tudor propaganda. There were three distinct phases of civil war: between 1455 and 1464 ; 1469 and 1471 ; and 1483 ...

Internet resources

Internet resources   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,228 words

..., and Monash University's National Centre for Australian Studies, http://www.arts.monash.edu.au/ncas/index.html ). Taken together, this network of websites is an effective research aid for professional, amateur, and student historians. It is a useful preparation for a visit to a library or archive. Notwithstanding efforts to go one step further and create Web-accessible ‘virtual’ libraries, which would enable users to read actual source materials online rather than electronic catalogues to those collections, there is still nothing approaching a virtual...

COINTELPRO

COINTELPRO   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,731 words

...to a virtual campaign of terrorism that included bombings of Independence Party and Socialist Party headquarters. Mari Bras's son was murdered in 1976 . Two young independentistas were murdered in Cerro Maravilla in 1978 , provoking a legislative inquiry and accusations that the FBI attempted to obstruct the investigations. According to the reporter and writer Alfred López , during a fifteen-year period ( 1971 to 1986 ) over 170 attacks of various types committed against independence movement organizations were documented. The FBI and local police...

Flipper, Henry Ossian

Flipper, Henry Ossian (b. 21 March 1856)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,415 words

...of the “shiftlessness” of the Mexican people, of their “intensely Catholic superstitions,” and of his hope that the civilizing presence of Americans would raise them out of barbarism. Patriotic to a fault, never doubting his country's superiority, Flipper carried through life the values of his early military training, values undiminished by his own unfair treatment. Beginning in 1910 the Mexican Revolution, which transformed Flipper's beloved border area into a virtual war zone, provided him with a new opportunity for national service. He drafted regular...

Northeastern Mexico

Northeastern Mexico   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,874 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mexico , a region that can be defined as one east of a virtual line linking the presentday towns of Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, and Saltillo and north of the rivers Pánuco, Moctezuma, and San Juan, that is to say, beyond the sixteenth-century limits of Mesoamerica. At the time that Cortés and his men reached the Veracruz shores in 1517 , these vast expanses of land were in fact occupied by nomadic groups of hunters and gatherers, as well as by some marginal semipermanent agriculturists, who were often called by a collective Nahuatl name, the ...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,039 words

...region where maroon communities were numerous. The end of slavery in Mesoamerica had two dimensions, virtual and factual. The former explains abolition as a biological and legal process through which the black and mulatto slaves' freeborn children were gradually assimilated into society. Unions of Africans with Spaniards, Indians, and mulattos gave rise to several legal processes that involved the inheritance of freedom under the will of the slaveowner. Slaves discovered that tribunals were a place where they could fight for their freedom. Some...

Rough Wooing

Rough Wooing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,924 words

...in both violence and military investment by the English crown in trying to solve what it convinced itself was the ‘British problem’. It resulted in what was, in effect, the last major Anglo‐Scottish war. Pinkie was the one major pitched battle in it, but Edinburgh was sacked, following a daring amphibious raid on its port of Leith in 1544 ; Dundee was reduced to a virtual pile of rubble in 1547 ; the Border zone was repeatedly savaged, and tens of thousands were killed, many homes burned and razed to the ground, and possessions and livestock stolen....

law

law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,641 words

...to prevent abuse. Increasing recognition that people's private lives are their own has produced a virtual revolution in the laws regulating marriage, divorce , and sexuality (areas governed by a mixture of federal and provincial law). The direction has generally been towards greater rights for women and towards greater correspondence with the principle enunciated by Justice Minister Pierre Trudeau ( 1967–8 ) that ‘There’s no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation'. W. Wesley Pue See also Quebec Civil law ; legal...

Intellectuals

Intellectuals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,332 words
Illustration(s):
1

...such as Martin Robison Delany , Malcolm X, and others have promoted nationalist sentiments and ideals. But no category of intellectual engagement is fixed; ideas and ideologies must reflect specific circumstances, and this complexity has been reflected in black intellectual development. Meanwhile, the debates and actual struggles involved in black Americans’ attempts at achieving nationalism, integrationism, or some balance of the two have served to influence other social justice movements in the United States and around the world. Black women have worked...

Disfranchisement of African Americans

Disfranchisement of African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,631 words

...to exempt white voters. The term was derived from a law that tied the voting rights of current voters to the voting rights of their grandfathers. Literacy and poll tax requirements would be waived for all descendants if a voter's grandfather had been a qualified voter before the Civil War, a virtual impossibility for all southern African Americans. The typical grandfather clause exempted any literacy and tax qualifications if any citizen, or his son or grandson, was a voter on 1 January 1867 . It was not until 1915 that the Court, having studiously avoided...

Colonial Era.

Colonial Era.   Reference library

Charles L. Cohen

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,810 words

...coastal and riverine areas linked to transatlantic markets. Slaves comprised the lowest social rank, their manumission a virtual impossibility. In the South, they frequently lived in gangs of twenty or more; in the North, they more often worked as individuals who staffed the elite's townhouses, advertising a family's wealth rather than generating it. Perhaps one in five Euramericans resided at or close to the subsistence level, but the majority resided in yeomen or artisan families that earned a competent livelihood. As their disposable income rose and ocean...

Political Participation

Political Participation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,044 words
Illustration(s):
2

...African Americans continued to vote until the end of the century. George Henry White , for one, of Wilmington, North Carolina, was elected to Congress from the “black second,” as his district was called, in 1896 and 1898 . However, the Wilmington race riot of 1898 undid other black electoral victories in the district and signaled a virtual end to black political participation in the South until the civil rights revolution of the mid-twentieth century. See also Abolitionism ; Black Abolitionists ; Black Politics ; Bruce, Blanche Kelso ; Civil...

Film And Filmmakers

Film And Filmmakers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,410 words
Illustration(s):
1

... A Soldier's Story and Bird , all these “black” films have white main characters. Glory is about the white officer who leads the African American Civil War platoon. Cry Freedom is about the South African white journalist who befriends the antiapartheid activist Stephen Biko (who dies halfway through the film). Mississippi Burning (and, in 1996 , Ghosts of Mississippi ) is a film about whites and their struggles dealing with the civil rights movement, with blacks and the actual struggle for freedom as background characters and settings. Spike...

women

women   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,634 words

...or a return to domestic service or the textile industries, which in 1931 employed 138,679 and 100,633 respectively. Whilst the 20th century witnessed the virtual extinction of the domestic servant, who made up 24 per cent of female employees in 1901 and only 11 per cent in 1951 , the nature and form of service merely altered to accommodate changing classifications in the public sphere. The growth in demand for institutional public cleaners, cooks, and carers created many low‐paid, low‐skilled, low‐status ‘opportunities’ for many working‐class women....

Children’s Literature

Children’s Literature   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,501 words
Illustration(s):
2

...sometimes found themselves with less influence because marketing executives focused on increasing profits. A tendency toward homogenization in genres, topics and themes, and authors resulted in fewer publications by and about blacks, perhaps a reflection of the conservative political tide sweeping the country in the 1970s and 1980s. Rudine Sims Bishop documented the decline and virtual disappearance of black children’s literature; fewer than one hundred books were published in the early 1980s. By the 1990s, however, things were beginning to change....

Organized Labor

Organized Labor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,977 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for the Detroit News . Virtual Motor City Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University World War II. World War II both strengthened the African American presence in unions and intensified preexisting antipathies between white and black workers inside and outside unions. The demand for workers in essential war industries impelled millions of African American and white southerners to move north and west in response to employment opportunities and higher wages. The migration out of the South between 1940 and 1945 dwarfed that of the...

Indian History and Culture

Indian History and Culture   Reference library

Melissa L. Meyer, Dean R. Snow, Dean R. Snow, Charles L. Cohen, Melissa L. Meyer, Russell Thornton, Donald A. Grinde, and Leah Dilworth

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,114 words

...fell into the hands of future land barons, speculators, and corporations. Allotment also undermined tribal life. American Indian groups that managed to retain tribal lands as reservations fared better as tribes. This included particularly Indians on the Plains and in the Southwest and West . The 1934 Indian Reorganization Act , acknowledging Indian tribes' “rights to organize for [their] common welfare,” legitimated and codified tribal self-government under the watchful eyes if not the actual dictates of the BIA. This act, in turn, provided the basis...

Foreign Relations

Foreign Relations   Reference library

Emily S. Rosenberg, Dennis Merrill, Emily S. Rosenberg, Lawrence S. Kaplan, Paul S. Boyer, T. Christopher Jespersen, Paul S. Boyer, Nancy Mitchell, Bruce Kuniholm, Paul S. Boyer, J.L. Granatstein, and Mark T. Gilderhus

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
13,087 words

...to “repatriate” freed slaves to Liberia, which became a virtual U.S. protectorate. For the next century, only explorers’ tales, missionary reports, and Theodore Roosevelt 's hunting safaris piqued Americans’ interest in the “Dark Continent”. Severed from their ethnic roots, eager to prove their patriotism, and embarrassed by the prevailing stereotypes of Africa, African Americans shunned identification with the continent. By the early twentieth century, however, pushed by virulent racism at home and pulled by Ethiopia's defeat of Italy in 1896 , some U.S....

economy

economy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,869 words

...that the scale and impact of economic growth in the early 17th century was greater than has sometimes been appreciated. Edinburgh accumulated an increasing share of Scottish overseas trade until it had a virtual monopoly in many key commodities and in the early 17th century more and more trade came into the hands of a small elite of Edinburgh's ‘merchant princes’. Their profits were diversified into a range of industrial activities, including coal mining and salt production, as well as into agricultural improvement, urban property, and moneylending. The...

Political Organization and Development

Political Organization and Development   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,871 words

...( ayuntamientos ) and effectively granting themselves encomiendas . These included both tribute in a variety of commodities and personal service. In the absence of royal oversight, personal service often meant virtual slavery for Indian people. Indigenous polities constituted handy (and handsome) units for encomienda grants. Their variation in size made it possible to reward individual conquistadores according to their rank or service without the need to create new and artificial entities. The business of extracting tribute and gaining wealth could...

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