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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Multimedia Applications

Multimedia Applications   Reference library

Maria Roussou

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,070 words

...revisited, and shared. The emphasis now lies on crafting visitor-centered digital “experiences of the past” with elements that incorporate active participation and spectacle. The goal is then to enable audiences to gain insights by actively engaging in and even modifying the experience, exploring different views, and reflecting on multiple interpretations. Advanced Visualization Applications. As digital interfaces, techniques, and devices have improved greatly, providing more natural and obvious modes of interaction and motivational elements, “virtual...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

Yannis Hamilakis, Neil Asher Silberman, John K. Papadopoulos, Ian Morris, H. A. Shapiro, Mark D. Stansbury-O’Donnell, Frank Holt, and Timothy E. Gregory

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
11,848 words

...heralds a virtual “renaissance” in Aegean culture. The relative chronology of the Early Iron Age is based on that aspect of material culture most abundantly preserved and subjected to closest scrutiny: painted pottery, much of it from burial contexts. The internal chronology of the period as a whole has been closely linked to the successive pottery styles of the Aegean Early Iron Age, namely, “Final Mycenaean/Submycenaean,” Protogeometric, and Geometric. Ceramic style alone, however, can sometimes be a misleading indicator of social change, and the specific...

Ethnoarchaeology

Ethnoarchaeology   Reference library

Thomas W. Davis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,146 words
Illustration(s):
1

...parks and specialized tourist itineraries emphasizing religious and/or historical events have been created. Experimental archaeology, which comes under the rubric of ethnoarchaeology, is a particularly valuable tool in the public presentation of archaeological remains. On occasion, excavation at a site or monument is halted to allow for the preservation and presentation of a particular historical moment in the history of the occupation of the site, despite unanswered questions. Interpretive re-creation of such a site, whether in virtual or in actual reality,...

Antioch on the Orontes

Antioch on the Orontes   Reference library

Andrea U. De Giorgi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,480 words

...to identify the ways by which Antiochene Jews contributed to the forging of a unique city and to the heightening of its profile; one should not neglect that by the third century c.e. the small, unassuming Seleucid city on the Orontes had become the virtual capital of the Roman oikoumene (inhabited world). Jewish communities had been instrumental in the building and evolution of the city since its inception, when Seleucid veterans and captives settled in the region and participated in the construction of the city. Babylonian Jews who had gained distinction...

Qumran

Qumran   Reference library

Jean-Baptiste Humbert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...than by actual stratigraphic evidence and divided his chronology into periods Ia and b, II, and III. The excavation ascertained that the settlement had been founded by the Essenes after their separation from Jerusalem between 152 and 135 b.c.e. , after which Jonathan was the high priest. According to de Vaux, there are even more correspondences between the archaeological and textual records: the exile of the Essenes, recorded in the Damascus Document , corresponds to the destruction of the area caused by the earthquake of 31 b.c.e. and described by...

Biblical Archaeology

Biblical Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,319 words

...orientation, and its concern with culture and culture change (so-called “processual archaeology”). Yet, if the full impact of the New Archaeology was felt, it was so only belatedly: the antihistorical attitude and theoretical thrust toward positivist philosophies of science were rejected outright; and the actual changes were more a matter of style than of substance. The real contribution of the “New Archaeology” lay first of all in its commitment to multidisciplinary methods and its insistence on explicit, self-conscious statements of methods and purpose, as we...

Inscriptions

Inscriptions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
10,643 words
Illustration(s):
4

...developed mathematics, geometry, and astronomy, but they left few writings dealing with the topics. The classification of the world, natural and human, was an important part of Mesopotamian science, expressed in lexical terms: long lists of words organized into broad semantic categories, usually based on the Sumerian term and with or without the corresponding Akkadian term. The concept developed into virtual polyglot dictionaries in the West (tablets are attested at Ugarit with columns for Sumerian, Akkadian, Hurrian, and Ugaritic). It is the belletristic...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
9,563 words

...of sale, leases, and the like. They are the primary sources for which historians have the greatest use. Extracting history from literary texts such as the Qumran materials is a tricky and tenuous process at best. The discovery of so many documentary materials highlights the anomaly of their virtual absence among the Qumran scrolls. For some scholars this problem is sufficient in itself to raise the question of whether the texts in caves 1–11 really did come from Qumran—because any group resident there presumably also possessed autographic and ephemeral written...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
13,125 words
Illustration(s):
6

...obscura, the “dark room,” and the fixative hypo, which have been necessary since the beginning of photography, may one day be obsolete. With CAD (Computer Aided Design) and graphics programs to input the data from photos and site plans, a house or a town may be re- created in “virtual reality,” allowing the viewer to “walk” from room to room, down streets, and out city gates. Sequences of levels at a site could be assembled so that each phase of a building or a entire town can be viewed on command. It may be possible to re-create the successive stages of a...

History of the Field

History of the Field   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
40,352 words

...excavations at Masada, which various teams of Israeli archaeologists had previously explored and surveyed. To many in Israel and abroad, Masada had deep historical and emotional significance. Hundreds of volunteers from all over the world participated in its excavation, initiating a practice now common on both Israeli and foreign expeditions working in Israel. For the general public the extensive, well-publicized excavations at Masada became a virtual symbol of Israeli archaeology, as well as a tourist attraction. During those same years, Aharoni...

Reading the Archives as Sources

Reading the Archives as Sources   Reference library

David M. Gordon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,820 words

...archival fieldwork? Digital archival fieldwork can be compared to ethnographic fieldwork in virtual reality; the researcher’s view is filtered and partial. The problem is evident. Its solution is not to dismiss digital forms of combing and recording but to acknowledge and work with their limitations. The speed and efficacy of digital combing and recording need to be combined with the slower qualitative aspects of archival fieldwork. Archival Orders and Disorders The world of the 21st century is moving beyond documents even as they have been...

Archaeobotany: Methods

Archaeobotany: Methods   Reference library

Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,900 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the best evidence for early domestication processes in pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum ) in West Africa and sorghum in Sudan. 35 The main procedure for working is to assess impressions and then cast them with a silicon-based material so as to have a positive, which can then be photographed, normally at a higher resolution allowed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). 36 Recently, the use of CT scanning has begun to offer the potential for the virtual extraction of plan inclusions from within ceramics. 37 For all other categories of macro-remains,...

Digital Sources for the History of the Horn of Africa

Digital Sources for the History of the Horn of Africa   Reference library

Massimo Zaccaria

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,371 words
Illustration(s):
4

...a virtual research environment that will be used to study the manuscript tradition of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Highlands. Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies (COMSt) . This project was implemented in the period 2009–2014 and aimed at facilitating an interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars of oriental manuscript studies. Cultural Heritage of Christian Ethiopia, Salvation, Preservation, and Research (Ethio-SPaRe) . Funded by the European Research Council, the project ran from 2009 to 2015. The project fostered information exchange and knowledge...

Digital Sources in Europe for African History

Digital Sources in Europe for African History   Reference library

Marion Wallace

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,279 words

...to citizens of western countries, and digitization gives an unparalleled opportunity to allow fully democratic open access.” 6 The historian Enrique Martino, creator of OpenSourceGuinea.org , goes further in declaring a Derridean challenge to archival hierarchies: digitized archives have the potential “to circulate in democratic digital spaces,” becoming “productive of new audiences and destructive of neo-colonial writing and research practices.” 7 This widening of the audience—potential and actual—for archival, library, and museum resources is a development...

Rock Art Research Methods

Rock Art Research Methods   Reference library

Jeremy Hollmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
15,702 words

...of rock art to create the feeling of virtual space, of “being there.” 4D models incorporate the fourth dimension, that of temporality, and can be used to show changes in the evolution of rock-art imagery over time. Digital photogrammetry and laser scanning are used to produce 3D models. Photogrammetry can now be carried out with a minimum of training and with relatively inexpensive camera equipment and software. Structure from Motion technology creates high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMS) from multiple overlapping images taken from many different...

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