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Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... and virtual A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept according to Deleuze because it presupposes that everything that is real must also be possible (which rules out a great number of conceptual inventions, consigning them to the ontologically lesser category of the unreal, or impossible), and it is unable to explain why that which is possible has not already come into being. For Deleuze, both the actual...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual  

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept ...
Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...harvests and high food prices. This riotous action was striking for its ritualized forms and limited use of violence. Hardly ever attacking persons, the crowd often seized the grain or bread and sold it at what they considered a ‘fair’ price. The ruling classes had their own theatrical ways of displaying their authority. By and large the actual landowners only met the plebs face to face when cloaked in the majesty of the *law [8] or prepared to shower mercy and charity in order to cool plebeian discontent; otherwise they operated as employers and landlords...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Ireland’. However, such counter-revolutionary-inspired attempts to make the Church of England a virtual established church throughout the empire were checked by countervailing forces. In the first place, imperial administrators were well aware that too obvious an alliance with the Church of England could inflame the suspicions both of non-Christian native peoples and of European settlers outside the Anglican fold. The imperial government also had to reckon with the increasingly well- organized political voice of Protestant Dissent both at home and...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prehistory, suggesting virtual animality and absolute distance. If this racist evolutionism is typically associated with Darwinism, and indeed acquired more systematic theoretical form in the late nineteenth century, most of its familiar elements were nevertheless in place by the beginning of the century, though they jostled with other ways of perceiving human variety. Voyage and exploratory writing should not be understood as limited to the corpus of well-known voyages and descriptive works, but to include less renowned accounts, and even the cheap versions...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...without reducing the growth of new print publications, and the natural division between modern books and ancient texts has not disappeared. The digitization of new books, of course, is merely a new form of publication, and the digitization of current publications is fraught with legal issues of copyright. On the other hand, the digitization of ancient books and MSS not only provides access to their texts but is closely related to issues of preservation. The future of Chinese digital books and virtual libraries is as unpredictable as the technology that...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between graceful 14 th -century Italian book illustration and the panel paintings and frescos of the early Renaissance; and between the homely, engaging, and sometimes comic miniatures of southern Netherlandish books of around 1500 and the paintings of the Flemish primitives, from the Van Eycks to the Bruegels. That is as one would expect. Often, in fact, they were the same actual craftsmen, working in different media. Most MSS are transcribed from other MSS, and absorb something of their exemplars and of their creator’s own time. The lines of textual...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the form of extracts a virtual synopsis of late-eighteenth-century British and European enlightened thought. The foundations for enlightened radicalism in Ulster had, however, been laid nearly a century earlier, when Lockean ideas of social contract and popular sovereignty were related to the Irish situation by thinkers such as William Molyneux ( 1656–98 ) and Robert , Lord Molesworth ( 1656–1725 ), who also contrasted libertarian Whig principles based on the *Glorious Revolution with those of ecclesiastical and political tyranny. Another...

virtual machine

virtual machine  

1 A collection of resources that emulates the behavior of an actual machine. The virtual machine concept originated in Cambridge, Mass., in the late 1960s as an extension of the virtual memory system ...
Atlas

Atlas  

The first computer to incorporate many features now considered standard, including: a virtual (logical) address space larger than the actual (physical) address space; a one-level memory using core ...
logical

logical  

1 Involving or used in logic.2 Conceptual or virtual, or involving conceptual entities, as opposed to physical or actual.
bind

bind  

To resolve the interpretation of some name used in a program for the remaining lifetime of that instance of the program. For example, upon invocation of a procedure the formal parameters are bound to ...
nomadology

nomadology  

Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's utopian project outlined in Mille Plateaux (1980), translated as A Thousand Plateaus (1987). The origin of the word ‘nomad’ is not, as many have assumed, a ...
third place

third place  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Community meeting spaces such as cafés, pubs, and village halls which are neither domestic nor work spaces. The concept was proposed by the American sociologist Ray Oldenburg (b.1932).2. In the ...
VO

VO  

abbr. for virtual organization; a concept derived from computer science and comprising people from a variety of actual organizations. One example of a VO would be those involved in different ...
dispositif

dispositif  

An organization of statements. The term is used by Michel Foucault to describe the systemic connection of statements. It is for this reason often translated as ‘apparatus’, although this doesn't ...
literalists

literalists  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Term used by Michael Fried as a virtual synonym for exponents of Minimal art. It is not intended as complimentary, implying that their work emphasizes actual space and conditions of viewing, so ...
cell relay

cell relay  

A form of switching in which the individual packets, or cells, have a fixed length and a fixed internal structure; in many cases the cells are also deliberately kept to a small size, typically a few ...
Carlo Rubbia

Carlo Rubbia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1934–) Italian physicistBorn at Gorizia, Trieste, Rubbia was educated at the University of Pisa, where he obtained his PhD in 1958. After spending a year each at Columbia, New York, and Rome, he ...
marketplace

marketplace   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
84 words

...The space, actual or virtual, in which a market operates; the environment in which goods and services are supplied and purchased. The online, or virtual, marketplace uses a variety of digital channels and websites that enable the conduct of business between buyers and sellers of products, assets, and services without human interaction. There are also exchange-based online marketplaces in which a website service is shared by multiple e-commerce vendors, each having a different speciality, to conduct business online. See also market...

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