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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

West Harlem Environmental Action

West Harlem Environmental Action   Reference library

Victoria Santiago

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,173 words

...and institution building. Institution building begins with an assessment of a community’s capacity to identify, monitor and respond to issues and problems… . There is a keen resistance to funding research, public policy work and capacity building… . To fund an organization of color to do research on a community of color is a radical act of income redistribution. ( Shepard, 1998 , p. 14) Shepard promoted a collaborative stance with both academic and environmental groups as well as government officials. WE ACT worked to maintain the relevance and urgency of...

Solis, Hilda

Solis, Hilda (1957)   Reference library

Mary Pardo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
886 words

...of victims. Over twenty-five years of distinguished accomplishments as an elected official informed her work as US Secretary of Labor, and she identified key areas needing attention in a period of economic recession: training workers to be competitive in the new economy, monitoring worker protection efforts, and reforming unemployment insurance to include unemployed part-time workers who cannot find full-time work. Indeed, her family origins and experiences as the daughter of working-class immigrant parents appear to inspire her vision. Solis served as...

DEREGULATION, 1970 TO PRESENT

DEREGULATION, 1970 TO PRESENT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...pay and raised federal insurance coverage from $40,000 to $100,000 per account. The second reform, the Garn–St. Germain Act, allowed the S&Ls to invest their funds beyond home mortgages. At the same time, the Office of Management and Budget and Congress reduced the amount of monitoring and supervision of the industry. The result was fraud, theft, bad management, and an eventual enormous federal bailout. Enthusiasm for deregulation continued, after 1980 , into the Reagan years and beyond, but became more partisan than it had been earlier. A strengthened Office...

Education

Education   Reference library

Victoria-María MacDonald and Roderick L. Carey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,284 words

...by the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund (recently renamed LatinoJustice). These three organizations, including smaller groups such as ASPIRA, Inc. of New York founded by Antonia Pantoja, have become powerful political entities with headquarters in Washington, DC, to monitor educational legislation and policymaking relevant to Latino/as. Not only in the civil rights movement, but also afterward, organizations formed from educational researchers and practitioners from groups such as the National Educational Latino Research Agenda Project, founded in ...

Prisons

Prisons   Reference library

Juanita Díaz-Cotto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,536 words

...detention facilities, Border Patrol facilities, local and county jails, and private for-profit facilities contracted by the immigration authorities to hold adults and minors. Although immigration authorities sometimes minimally monitored the treatment received by detainees in INS or ICE facilities, they did not generally monitor treatment received by immigration detainees held in city or county jails or privately run facilities. In these facilities, detainees received the same treatment as prisoners convicted of criminal violations although they were being...

Obama, Barack

Obama, Barack   Reference library

Fred I. Greenstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,653 words

...Great Depression, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. This law was designed to reduce the likelihood of the kind of meltdown of the banking system that produced the financial crisis of 2008 . It did so by regulating risky banking practices and better monitoring the banking system. Obama signed the bill into law on 21 July 2010 . Obama ’s strong electoral showing in 2008 led to the election of Democrats from normally Republican districts so it was inevitable that his party would lose seats in the 2010 Congressional election. To...

Immigration Reform

Immigration Reform   Reference library

Alexandra Délano

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,571 words

...incentives for irregular migration by deporting undocumented migrants who were already in the United States and limiting their access to services and other state benefits. Beginning in 1993 , the Clinton administration carried out a series of border operations to enhance monitoring and control of illegal border crossings with new equipment and technology and more border patrol agents. In 1996 the US Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, and the Illegal...

Employment Discrimination

Employment Discrimination   Reference library

Rebecca Morales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,092 words

...characteristics. Furthermore, and in contrast to the UI study, although the Latinos did have Hispanic surnames and were “Hispanic looking,” they did not have accents. Furthermore, the management of the studies differed greatly. The UI met with the teams daily and constantly monitored their results. The Denver study had far less supervision. Another significant difference was that Denver auditors were paid for each stage of the process reached by the team, thereby providing an incentive for fabricating the data ( Zimmerman, 1992 ). Thus, the results of the...

Economic Policy

Economic Policy   Reference library

Jerry W. Markham, Clinton M. Sandvick, Thomas K. McCraw, and Stephen R. Thomas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
5,228 words

...pay and raised federal insurance coverage from $40,000 to $100,000 per account. The second reform, the Garn–St. Germain Act, allowed the S&Ls to invest their funds beyond home mortgages. At the same time, the Office of Management and Budget and Congress reduced the amount of monitoring and supervision of the industry. The result was fraud, theft, bad management, and an eventual enormous federal bailout. Enthusiasm for deregulation continued, after 1980 , into the Reagan years and beyond, but became more partisan than it had been earlier. A strengthened...

Elections

Elections   Reference library

J. Morgan Kousser, Alan Ware, Allan J. Lichtman, Charles A. Kromkowski, and Donald A. DeBats

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
14,415 words

..., Congress enacted a more expansive civil rights act and in 1965 a new voting rights act, which banned literacy tests and other racially discriminatory devices in both federal and state elections. The 1965 Voting Rights Act also guaranteed that the fed- eral government would monitor and review voter registration, elections, and electoral procedures in all or parts of eight southern states, Alaska , and several non-southern lo-calities with historically low rates of registration and voting. Under the authority granted in the 1965 act, the U.S. attorney...

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