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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

social capital

social capital   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
610 words

...as conformity to school norms, an interest in academic matters, and avoidance of deviance. Lack of interaction between parents and children, and between parents and other adults, fosters open networks, lack of communication, lack of adherence to and enforcement of norms and of family control, all of which reduces the probability of building up human capital and increases opportunities for deviant behaviour. It has been suggested that this argument represents a significant shift in Coleman's thinking about academic socialization from his earlier work. In his...

Modernization and Development

Modernization and Development   Reference library

Dominic T. Bocci

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,829 words

...no longer imprisoned in their homes…. The fight against terrorism is also a fight for the rights of women” (2002). The events of September 11, 2001, exhumed many colonial arguments and impressions that the Muslim world is backwardly un-modern and in severe need of development. Monitoring the status of modernization and development, the Arab Human Development Reports (AHDRs), independent reports published by the United Nations Development Programme, detail the economic and political weaknesses of much of the Muslim world. The first report was published in 2002...

Fatayat Nahdlatul ʿUlamāʾ

Fatayat Nahdlatul ʿUlamāʾ   Reference library

Ala’ i Nadjib

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,288 words

...with Fatayat NU, including Asma Barlas, Margot Badran, Amina Rasul, Ziba Mir Hosseini, Vivien Wie, and Ahmed Ragaʾa Abdel Hamid Ragab, among others. In addition, Fatayat has contributed to Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women's (CEDAW) monitoring and overseeing of the recognition of women's rights in Indonesia, particularly by working to raise awareness of women's rights in Indonesian society. It often finds that women are aware only of their duties, not their rights, particularly in the domestic arena. Fatayat NU initiated a...

Women's Entrepreneurship

Women's Entrepreneurship   Reference library

Roksana Bahramitash and Roksana Bahramitash

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,299 words

...Path: The Economic Answer to Terrorism . New York: Harper and Row, 1989. Diana Project International . “Diana Conference for Women Entrepreneurs.” http://womenentrepreneursgrowglobal.org/tag/diana-project/. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). “GEM 2010 Report: Women Entrepreneurs Worldwide.” In Global Entrepreneurship Monitor , edited by D. J. Kelley , C. G. Brush , P. Greene , and Y. Litovsky . Babson Park, Mass.: Babson College and the Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, 2011. http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/768. Goldin, C. ...

Education

Education   Reference library

Benjamin Justice

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...societies—usually pan-Protestant in religious orientation—to provide education for the poor. The most popular charity-school model, the monitorial school, provided a cheap means of offering education to the masses. At these schools, large groups of children would sit at benches, their place on the bench determined by their ability; gradually they made their way up to the position of monitor, in which they would monitor the progress of a bench. Frequent testing and sorting, rote memorization, and repressive discipline kept the students moving forward. The...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Joe W. Trotter Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of black voters’ overwhelming support of the New Deal, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1941 issued Executive Order 8802: the order banned racial discrimination in industries with government contracts and set up the federal Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to monitor the process. For the first time, African Americans broke the job ceiling and moved into jobs above the “unskilled” and “semiskilled” categories. Though the wartime struggle against inequality entailed substantial tensions and conflicts within the African American community...

Economics and Finance

Economics and Finance   Reference library

Yvonne Corcoran-Nantes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,367 words

...Center Insight, 2010. A twenty-four-page report, available at http://www.ideationcenter.com/home/ideation . Alturki, Naura , and Rebekah Braswell . Businesswomen in Saudi Arabia: Characteristics, Challenges and Aspirations in a Regional Context . Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Monitor Group, 2010. See especially pp. 1–70. Cons, Jason , and Kasia Paprocki . “Contested Credit Landscapes: Microcredit, Self-Help and Self-Determination in Rural Bangladesh.” Third World Quarterly 31, no. 4 (2010): 637–654. Doumaro, Eleanor Abdella . “Saudi Arabia.” In Women's...

Cinema

Cinema   Reference library

Stefanie Van de Peer, Sara Saljoughi, Lamia Ben Youssef, and Eylem Atakav

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
10,546 words

...elections on Moroccan women's cinema remains to be seen. Bibliography Alloula, Malek . Le harem colonial: Images d’un sous-érotisme . Paris: Garance, 1981. Carroll, Jill . “Scarce at Home, the Movies of Tunisia's Female Filmmakers Draw World Acclaim.” The Christian Science Monitor , October 4, 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1004/p05s01-wome.html/ . Carter, Sandra Gayle . What Moroccan Cinema? A Historical and Critical Study 1956–2006 . Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2009. Faaiek, Ahmed . “Fears of ‘Enhanced’ Censorship in the Wake of the Arab...

Women and Social Protest

Women and Social Protest   Reference library

Nadjib Ala’I, Natana J. DeLong-Bas, and Olga Davidson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,860 words

.... “Saudi King Abdullah Talks to Barbara Walters.” 20/20 , October 14, 2005. Transcript online at http://abcnews.go.com/2020/International/story?id=1214706 . Vinograd, Cassandra . “Shot Pakistani Girl Malala Recovering as Father Arrives in UK.” Christian Science Monitor , October 26, 2012, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Latest-News-Wires/2012/1026/Shot-Pakistani-girl-Malala-recovering-as-father-arrives-in-UK . VIVAnews. “New Findings in Ruyati Case: Ms. Ruyati Had Not Had Legal Aid from the Government during the Trials in Saudi Arabia.” HRWG,...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995. Dor, Yonina . “The Rite of Separation of the Foreign Wives in Ezra-Nehemiah.” In Judah and Judeans in the Achaemenid Period , edited by Oded Lipschits , Gary N. Knoppers , and Manfred Oeming , pp.173–188. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2011. Eskenazi, T. C. , and Eleanore P. Judd . “Marriage to a Stranger in Ezra 9–10.” In Second Temple Studies II: Temple and Community in the Persian Period , edited by T. C. Eskenazi and Kent H. Richards , pp. 266–285. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994. Faust...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

Mervat Hatem, Heba Raouf Ezzat, Shahla Haeri, Valentine M. Moghadam, Susan Schaefer Davis, Leila Hessini, Stephanie Willman Bordat, Anita M. Weiss, Sharon Siddique, and Farjana Mahbuba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
15,123 words

...expediency, rather than accompanied by awareness-raising campaigns to inform the population and mobilize support, which is necessary to ensure the reforms’ acceptance and application. In addition, reforms have not been accompanied by government measures to monitor and control their implementation. Monitoring reports by women's rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in all three countries describe how even laws that are positive on the face of it are not enforced by officials charged with applying them. Authorities themselves are often unaware of the laws,...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...minds and upset one’s mental tranquility (Cicero, On the Nature of the Gods 1.117; Cicero, On Divination 2.81; Horace, Satires 2.3.79–80; Seneca, On Mercy , 2.5.1). Fearing that these mental disturbances could lead to seditious thoughts, the Romans exercised vigilance in monitoring the activities of these associations (Livy, The History of Rome 39.8.1–19.7; Valerius Maximus, Memorable Doings and Sayings 1.3; Tacitus, Annals 2.85; Suetonius, Tiberius 36; Cassius Dio, Roman History 52.35–36). Roman Representations of Early Christianity and Ancient...

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...World. Westmont, Ill.: IVP Academic Press, 2003. Cohen, Shaye J. D. , ed. The Jewish Family in Antiquity. Brown Judaic Studies 289. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993. Dutcher-Walls, Patricia , ed. Family in Life and in Death: The Family in Ancient Israel, Sociological and Archaeological Perspectives . Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies. New York: T&T Clark, 2009. Hess, Richard S. , and M. Daniel Carroll R. , eds. Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2003. Knight, Douglas A. ...

Masculinity and Femininity

Masculinity and Femininity   Reference library

Susan E. Haddox, Annette Weissenrieder, Marguerite Johnson, Robert Seesengood, and L. Stephanie Cobb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
19,158 words

...of acts deemed unmanly (such as oral stimulation), was to betray one’s social standing and to lose control. As Roman masculinity was a precarious condition that was always under threat, so austere and demanding its requisites, it needed to be constantly guarded, acted upon, and monitored—not only by the individual but by his family and associates as well. There were regular external threats to masculinity such as the moral degeneration that arose after the Roman conquests of the second and first centuries b.c.e. , particularly after the destruction of Carthage...

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