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Overview

academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

School Violence

School Violence   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...use of weapons, property theft and vandalism, sexual harassment and assault, abuse from school staff, gang violence, and hate crimes. school violence; monitoring; mapping; interventions School violence has deleterious consequences for children and schools. Research suggests that victims may experience physical harm, psychological trauma such as anxiety, depression, loneliness, low self-esteem, poor academic outcomes, low school attendance, suicidal ideation, and in rare cases, extreme outbursts of lethal aggression (Juvonen & Graham, 2001 ; Limber, 2006 ;...

Agency-Based Research

Agency-Based Research   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...remains underappreciated within the field. Instead, most published social work research is carried out under university auspices with the prevailing paradigm of social work knowledge development ascribed to social work academics. More recently, the evidence-based practice movement has further emphasized the division of labor between academics as knowledge producers and practitioners as knowledge implementers (Gambrill, 2006 ). By contrast, this article focuses on the conduct of programmatic, supervisory, and clinical research within social work agencies, by...

Education Policy

Education Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...American students lag behind other students on academic tests and rate of high school graduation (NCES, 2006a ). While special education services have expanded since the late 1970s, much debate exists on its effectiveness and how it should be measured (Hanushek, Kain, & Rivkin, 2002 ; Reynolds & Wolfe, 1997 ; U.S. DOE, 2005 ). Several states report that less than 50% of students in special education leave school with a high school diploma (National Center for Special Education Accountability Monitoring, 2004 ). Funding The federal government provides...

Prevention

Prevention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Social Welfare and Social Services
Length:
5,661 words
Illustration(s):
1

...prevention and health promotion (pp. 937–945). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. DuBois, D. L. (2003b). Self-esteem, childhood. In T. P. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 945–953). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. DuBois, D. L. (2003c). Self-esteem, adolescence. In T. P. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 953–961). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Durlak, J. A. (1997). Successful prevention...

Policy Practice

Policy Practice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...also connotes an academic field of inquiry concerned with the description, explanation, prescription, implementation, and evaluation of those planned interventions to reform societal conditions for the well-being of individuals, families, groups, organizations, communities, institutions, and societies (Midgley, 2000 ; Sherraden, 2002 ). In this country SPP is pursued in several academic settings, including schools of social work, public health, and public policy, or departments of sociology and political science, rather than in academic departments of...

Consumer Rights

Consumer Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...means is through the national system of state protection and advocacy organizations. These federally funded, nonprofit organizations are charged with protecting the rights of people with disabilities. A final means of enforcing rights is through quality improvement activities to monitor program compliance with rights within service organizations and to develop corrective actions when rights violations are detected. Implications for Social Work and Future Trends Social workers play a critical role in the realization of rights for consumers of health and mental...

Psychotropic Medications

Psychotropic Medications   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...benign, upsetting, and life-altering experiences and emotions about medication use. Monitoring and adherence The social worker's role across settings and fields of practice is to keep an eye on clients' progress and movement toward their goals. As non-medical providers, social workers are not responsible for measuring and monitoring temperature, blood pressure, medication blood levels, or urine outputs. Instead, with respect to psychiatric medication, social workers monitor the client's experience with therapeutic and adverse side effects, whether physical,...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...linking, storage, and analysis of human service delivery information is being accompanied by applications that guide, carry out, and monitor social work interventions. The implications of this transformation include globalization, organizational flattening, and the supplementation of highly skilled practitioners by lower skilled staff with extensive IT guidance and support. New tasks for social work academics and researchers concern developing a knowledge infrastructure along with the systems to deliver the knowledge when and where it is needed. While...

Hunger, Nutrition, and Food Programs

Hunger, Nutrition, and Food Programs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to food insufficiency (Dixon, Winkleby, & Radimer, 2001 ). The National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990 recommended the development of a standardized mechanism and instrument(s) for defining and obtaining data on the prevalence of food insecurity or food insufficiency in the United States (Nord, Andrews, & Carlson, 2006 ). In 1995 , the USDA began using the food security questionnaire, also referred to as the “food security module,” to monitor household food security through a supplement to the Current Population Survey ( CPS ),...

Media Campaigns

Media Campaigns   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...attitudes toward issues such as race and sexual preference • identify and take action against inhumane or discriminatory practices • organize, join, or give financial support to groups that benefit society • become involved in community activities such as mentoring and monitoring neighborhood crime Here are a few examples of such efforts: Antipollution (1970s). In the annals of advertising history, few advertisement campaigns stick in as many minds as the “Crying Indian” television commercials of the 1960s and 1970s. See the Ad Council campaign...

Oncology Social Work

Oncology Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...support group leaders, consultants, or special project directors. Most pediatric oncology social workers practice in major cancer centers or in community hospitals with pediatric oncology programs. Children and adolescents with cancer generally have their care directed and monitored from those settings, even when part of treatment occurs in their local communities. There is a comprehensive and coordinated approach to care and special emphasis on family-centered care (Lauria, Clark, Hermann, & Stearns, 2001 ). Oncology social workers offer an array of...

Community Violence

Community Violence   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...or interethnic violence, and community violence incidents may be identified by different labels, such as “crime,” “gang violence,” or “school violence.” A lack of clear and precise demarcation of the term makes it difficult to accurately track the magnitude of the problem, monitor changing trends over time, or identify risk and protective factors. The presently diffuse definition of the term also risks its politicization, or worse, lends itself to be used in a biased or pejorative way, such as to purvey racist, classist, or ageist stereotypes about...

Cognition and Social Cognitive Theory

Cognition and Social Cognitive Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to include social cognitive theory as part of professional skill development. Conscious and Automatic Modes of Information Processing In some situations, such as a new environment, we are more aware of our thinking and reactions as we carefully observe our surroundings and monitor ourselves. However, most of the time people are unaware of their own cognitive processes. Treating most stimuli in a more automatic, efficient, and familiar manner allows us to function without becoming overwhelmed by the enormity of information available in the environment. Part...

Bioethics

Bioethics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...social work roles on organizational bodies that monitor and respond to bioethical issues are summarized, as are trends in bioethics. Practice contexts, from beginning to end of life, are highlighted with biopsychosocial facts, ethical questions and issues, and implications for social work—a profession uniquely positioned in giving bioethics a social context. bioethics; biomedical ethics; health care Bioethics is a multidisciplinary field encompassing the traditional clinical health care professions and the academic and legal professions. The field of bioethics...

Voter Education

Voter Education   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Illinois, Michigan, and Pennsylvania—resisted the new federal mandate to open up registration opportunities and challenged the law's constitutionality in court. Across the board, federal courts uniformly upheld the law, but have not gone further to establish mechanisms for monitoring compliance (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2001 , pp. 5–7). A recent study of Section 7 compliance found a huge fall-off in voter registration applications from public assistance agencies since the late 1990s (Kavanagh, Carbo, Mayo, & Slater, 2005 ). Compared to the first...

Licensing

Licensing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...specific conditions for imposition of penalties, and establish the grounds for reinstatement of a license. Penalties may include the denial of a license (new or renewed), a monetary fine, restrictions on the license, imposition of supervised practice by a board-approved practice monitor, required continuing education, or suspension, probation, or revocation of the license. Penalties are imposed in the majority of disciplinary actions, and each penalty must state the conditions to be satisfied, and the specific steps for reinstatement of the license if...

Ethics in Research

Ethics in Research   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

.... Sieber, J. E. (1992). Planning ethically responsible research: A guide for students and internal review boards . Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Smith, D. (2003, January). Five principles of research ethics . APA Monitor , 34(1), 56–60. Retrieved January 3, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan03/principles.html . Steneck, N. H. (2004). ORI introduction to the responsible conduct of research . Rockville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of Research Integrity. Stroebe, M. , Stroebe, W. , & Schut, H. ...

Alcohol and Drug Problems

Alcohol and Drug Problems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Community risk factors: social disorganization, low neighborhood attachment, easy access to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Family risk factors: lack of communication or poor communication, lack of parental monitoring, lack of or inconsistent rules and expectations, family history of addiction. School risk factors: Low or inconsistent academic standards and support, lack of discipline and chaotic environment, unclear policies regarding alcohol and other drugs. Individual and peer risk factors: antisocial behaviors, sensation seeking, easily influenced...

Social Work Education

Social Work Education   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of interdisciplinary involvement are requirements for students to take part of their formal coursework from other academic units and to include members from other academic disciplines on dissertation committees. Some social work doctoral programs offer a joint degree with another academic discipline, such as the University of Michigan School of Social Work. The curriculum offered by social work doctoral programs is greatly influenced by the academic environment in which the program is housed. Those programs housed in more research intensive universities tend to...

Adults

Adults   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...is a call to action for social workers to monitor and measure psychosocial care and quality of life, including the use of applied measurement tools. Within this context, recommended social work roles and quality indicators suggest concrete areas for action. For one, social workers could use quality of life measures to better understand areas in which an individual's quality of life may be improved, to intervene to improve quality such as by increasing the individual's sense of autonomy and control, and to monitor change over time. Also, they could work to...

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