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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Comprehensive

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Comprehensive   Reference library

Jonathan A. Kolieb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...still be lacking. The Preparatory Commission for the CTBT, based in Vienna, is charged with both constructing the treaty's verification regime—which is designed to monitor compliance with its provisions—and also promptly notifying member states of any nuclear explosion conducted anywhere on the globe. By 2012 , more than 250 of a planned 337 facilities had been constructed worldwide to monitor for seismic, acoustic, and radioactive signs of nuclear explosions. [ See also Clinton, Bill ; Nuclear Weapons and Strategy , subentry on Nuclear...

Monetary Policy

Monetary Policy   Reference library

John H. Wood

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,521 words

...but it would have to be different than the targeting done in other countries. Congress is not an administrative body, and it would be out of character (possibly unconstitutional) to allow the executive to monitor the Federal Reserve. The legislation of a target, with qualifications and penalties for misses, might be possible. However, targeting and monitoring require discretion that is beyond the capacities of legislatures. Consequently, Congress will almost certainly continue to require the Federal Reserve to explain its actions and plans in frequent hearings...

Doctoral Education

Doctoral Education   Reference library

Arkadev Chatterjea

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...academic centre to support research, an opportunity to build the department, good office location, spousal job opportunities, help in locating housing, and so on. By contrast, highly bureaucratic Indian universities have little flexibility—the professors get paid according to the same salary scale, no matter what they contribute in terms of research, teaching, and academic service. Moreover, Indian educational institutions suffer from resource limitations and poor quality academic administration, and are plagued by many other problems (see entry on ‘Academic...

South Asia Theological Research Institute

South Asia Theological Research Institute   Reference library

Samson Prabhakar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...thus led to the establishment of the South Asia Theological Research Institute (SATHRI) in 1989 at Bangalore, which now functions under the guidance of a Committee for Research. As the research wing of the Senate of Serampore College (University), SATHRI coordinates, monitors, and guides formal research at the doctoral level leading to the degree of Doctor of Theology (D.Th.) under the guidance of the Committee for Research. With the guidance and expertise of about 105 resource persons, drawn from the various theological colleges, Roman Catholic...

Berio, Luciano

Berio, Luciano (24 Oct 1925)   Reference library

David R. Bubsey

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,272 words

...14–15 hours of lessons every week at Juilliard, was watching his second marriage fall apart. It was time, he decided, to return to Italy. Bibliography M. Donat : “Berio and his ‘Circles,’” MT , cv (1964), 105–7 L. Berio : “Meditation on a Twelve-Tone Horse,” Christian Science Monitor (1968), 8–9 D. Avron and J.-F. Lyotard : “‘A few words to sing’: Sequenza III,” Musique en jeu , no.2 (1971), 28–44; Eng. trans. in J.-F. Lyotard: Toward the Post-Modern (NJ, 1996) G.W. Flynn : “Listening to Berio's Music,” MQ , lxi (1975), 388–421 D. Osmond-Smith : “Berio...

Dealers, music and media

Dealers, music and media   Reference library

Daniel Zager

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,045 words

...whom librarians become acquainted with the broadest spectrum of newly published scores, recordings, and books. It would be nearly impossible, and economically costly, for librarians to monitor hundreds of individual publishers—large and small, from a broad geographic spectrum, with many being devoted to very specialized areas within the field of music. By monitoring the music publishing industries, dealers are in a position to provide librarians with regular and ongoing listings of new publications. Typically, these listings have been printed in various...

Finance Commissions

Finance Commissions   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...the same buoyancy as the union taxes, while grants are fixed amounts. The criteria built into the formulae for devolution may reflect some conditionality; but beyond the formula devolutions are unconditional. Grants, on the other hand, have come with continuing conditions and monitoring. Even the poorer and smaller states, therefore, prefer devolutions to grants. The third criticism is that the FCs have not adopted a ‘normative’ approach in assessing either the resources or the needs of the states. Every Commission has, in fact, adopted some norms for...

Carter, Jimmy

Carter, Jimmy   Reference library

Betty Glad and Kathy Smith

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,372 words

... Ronald Reagan ) to assist on diplomatic missions. His efforts were critical to the successful resolution of US conflicts with the Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea ( 1994 ) and Haiti ( 1994 ).To promote democracy, the Carter Center led by Jimmy Carter has monitored over eighty-three elections and continues to actively pursue this function. The Center’s disease prevention work is no less impressive, with the Guinea worm eradication program reducing this blinding disease by 98 percent, with the potential for total worldwide elimination. In...

Secondary Education

Secondary Education   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,807 words
Illustration(s):
1

...17(3). 1 For TIMSS, see http://nces.ed.gov/times/. For PIRLS, see http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001.html. For SACMEQ, see Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality, http://www.sacmeq.org/. 1 For TIMSS, see http://nces.ed.gov/times/. For PIRLS, see http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001.html. For SACMEQ, see Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality, ...

Corporate Ownership and Performance

Corporate Ownership and Performance   Reference library

Jayati Sarkar and Subrata Sarkar

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,323 words
Illustration(s):
1

...owners of family-dominated companies, positively impacts company value once their holdings cross a threshold (25 per cent), a result that is consistent with that of some well-cited studies in the US. The study also finds effective monitoring by financial institutions once they have substantial equity holdings. Further, this monitoring is reinforced by the extent of debt holdings by these institutions. The overall evidence, confirmed by later studies using more recent data, points to the positive role that can be played by blockholders in mitigating managerial...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Suzanne G. Cusick

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,717 words

...“the subaltern.” Transnational feminist Chandra Talpade Mohanty extended Black feminism's intersectional analysis to include the effects of global capitalism. These theoretical positions propelled academic feminism toward ever more heterogeneous critical strategies that emphasized the particular and performative over the universal and ontological. By 2010 academic feminism included such areas as the recuperation of “dangerous” pleasures and desires, masculinity studies, queer studies, transgender and transsexual studies, global and transnational studies of...

SPARKS, Jared

SPARKS, Jared (1789–1866)   Reference library

Shannon E. Duffy

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Church of Baltimore. The sermon delivered at his ordination by William Ellery CHANNING aroused intense controversy with Calvinists such as Moses STUART . From 1819 to 1823 Sparks wrote extensively in defense of Unitarianism, editing the Unitarian Miscellany and Christian Monitor , which debated doctrinal issues. In 1821 , he was elected chaplain of the United States House of Representatives, in what amounted to a significant victory for the Unitarians. However, two years later, he resigned his pastorate due to ill health, and largely abandoned religious...

Finance and Law

Finance and Law   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...companies were restricted from freely entering the market to raise funds. Even for firms lucky enough to obtain a permit, it was not easy to raise finance because the office of the Controller of Capital Issues (CCI) determined the price of initial public offerings (IPOs) and monitored the number of shares issued, without paying much heed to informational issues that could hurt small investors. The yearly long-term capital raised by companies between 1957 and 1980 hovered around Rs 150 crore. The thinness of the market was reflected in a meagre stock market...

Banking

Banking   Reference library

Saibal Ghosh, and Partha Ray

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...banks to ‘cherry-pick’ the loans market, a large foreign presence could leave domestic banks saddled with less creditworthy customers, increasing the overall risk of domestic bank portfolios. Second, the supervision of the more sophisticated activities of foreign banks and monitoring of new products usually introduced by them entails a continuous challenge for regulatory authorities. Another important supervisory issue is whether depositors in foreign banks would be entitled to receive the same degree of protection as depositors in domestic banks and...

Clusters and Their Diversity Introduced

Clusters and Their Diversity Introduced   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,703 words
Illustration(s):
1

...these interventions have focused on productivity enhancement through efficiency gains leading to cost reduction. However, the success of these development initiatives has not been established unambiguously due to their recent origin and partially due to the lack of effective monitoring and evaluation systems. There is a lot of scope for improving the efficiency of enterprises through cluster development initiatives, improved cluster-level strategies, building cluster to cluster linkages, strengthening of local governance systems, building cluster-specific...

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action   Reference library

James P. Sterba

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,283 words

...otherwise have been required. Given the unequal K–12 educational system in the United States , students who come from economically disadvantaged families cannot normally be expected to secure exactly the same academic credentials as those who are admitted to these schools without any preferential treatment. They should, however, tend to match the academic credentials of those students who previously had been admitted based on legacy or athletic preferences. Under such a program, only those students would be admitted whose qualifications are such that when their...

Education and Politics

Education and Politics   Reference library

Patrick McGuinn

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,098 words

...to improve have all directed an unprecedented amount of attention and resources at turning around failing schools. By holding states clearly accountable for the performance of their public schools, NCLB has also prodded state departments of education to expand their capacity to monitor local districts, provide technical assistance, and intervene where necessary. A variety of concerns have been raised about the design and implementation of the test-based accountability at the heart of NCLB and the ways in which it has fallen short of its goals and produced...

Farmers’ Distress and Suicides

Farmers’ Distress and Suicides   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,169 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The ‘input sub-system’ includes amendments to legal impediments that include liberalizing the tenancy market, fixing the lower size of holdings to arrest marginalization of ownership holdings, high density sustainable agriculture, regular supply of electricity, and quality monitoring of other inputs. The ‘input support system’ includes providing information to farmers on a day-to-day basis through established Farmer Consultation Centres even by internalizing and training input dealers. The ‘welfare sub-system’ for the farmers includes creating a farmers’...

DEMERS, Jérôme

DEMERS, Jérôme (1774–1853)   Reference library

Jenifer Nipps

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Recollet friary in Montreal because his father’s brothers, Father Louis Demers and Brother Alexis Demers were there. From 1788 to 1794 he studied at the College Saint-Raphaël, the Sulpician seminary at Montréal. According to the class records of lists and prizes, he was monitor of the second year, known as Syntax, in January 1789 . The next year, he was in Method, the third-year class. It is likely he took the philosophy program under his uncle Louis and Pierre-Jacques Bossu rather than at a college. The program covered philosophy and science and...

Christian Left

Christian Left   Reference library

Randall Balmer

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,253 words

...world. Finney himself was clear about the connections between evangelical theology and social reform. “God’s rule requires universal benevolence,” he wrote. “I abhor a piety which has no humanity with it and in it” ( Finney , p. 348–356). An 1837 article in the Religious Monitor & Evangelical Repository concurred, noting that “the sentiment is rapidly gaining ground in all parts of the country, that the church is the divinely appointed means of producing moral and religious reforms.” The Second Great Awakening, then, served as a catalyst for a...

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