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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

neoliberalism

neoliberalism   Quick reference

Andrew Hurrell and Laura Gomez-Mera

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
304 words

...system. Although recognizing that the absence of a sovereign authority at the international level creates opportunities for conflict, defection, and cheating, neoliberals argue that institutions and regimes help states cooperate by reducing uncertainty, linking issues, monitoring behaviour, and enhancing the importance of reputation. These arguments are countered by neorealist theorists who stress the importance of relative rather than absolute gains and the extent to which powerful states can shape institutions for their own purposes and avoid them...

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable   Reference library

Susan Dodsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,738 words
Illustration(s):
1

...pressure, and the fact that it is unlikely to decline, many development organizations have invested in strengthening their internal monitoring and evaluation systems. Others, such as the Westminster Foundation for Democracy (the U.K.’s primary democracy support agency, funded by both the DFID and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office) have gone further, launching new research partnerships that aim to make collaboration with academic research a more systematic and long-term part of their work. 3 Researchers based in Africa face funding pressures of their own—in...

Experimental Research in African Politics

Experimental Research in African Politics   Reference library

George Kwaku Ofosu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,237 words
Illustration(s):
2

...observers in Africa, Ichino and Schündeln ( 2012 ) partnered with Ghana’s largest citizen election monitoring group, the Coalition of Domestic Election Observers (CODEO), to examine the effect of monitors on voter registration fraud in the country’s 2008 general elections. CODEO deployed trained monitors to registration centers to detect and deter illicit voter registration practices. Until recently, it was hard to assess the impact of monitors on registration and election-day fraud because civil society groups deployed observers to locations with a...

Ombudsman

Ombudsman   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,561 words

...head of the Office of Police Integrity. Another trend has been the statutory conferral upon Ombudsman offices of specialist functions different to their core role of investigating complaints of defective administrative action. Many Ombudsman offices conduct periodic audits to monitor compliance by federal and state law enforcement agencies with legislation authorising telecommunications interception, controlled operations, and use of surveillance devices. It is also common for whistleblower protection legislation to designate the Ombudsman as a body to whom...

global governance

global governance   Quick reference

Fariborz Zelli

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,231 words

...and political interlinkages across borders. Global governance has served as a heuristic tool in academic and political debates since the late 1990s—meant to capture key transformations in the international system in times of socioeconomic globalization. One of these trends is the ascent of new types of agency. Aside from classical roles as agenda-setters and information-brokers, civil society and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) came to monitor international commitments of states, serve as mediators and evaluators, and help put international...

International Political Economy

International Political Economy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,342 words

...in a world economy which it could neither isolate itself from nor unilaterally control. Attention to international political economy was further reinforced by academic developments. The old agenda of international politics had become exhausted. The study of international organization had not moved beyond an arid formality practiced by specialists in international law . Economics as an academic discipline increasingly came to emphasize mathematical modeling as opposed to the study of specific empirical developments. Hence, many developments—the ...

Talkback radio

Talkback radio   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,087 words

...policies; editors of the tabloids do it, too. Party leaders not only appear on talkback, they also monitor it. The major parties may not ‘monitor talkback all day and every day, throughout the year’, as Faine suggests, but governments do. The lucrative industry of media monitoring has long since extended its range from press and television to radio, and governments—state and federal—are among the industry's biggest clients. The major parties also monitor talkback, especially during campaigns, looking for ‘gaffes’, whether from their own side or the other;...

Carter, Jimmy

Carter, Jimmy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,148 words

...Party as the most likely to manage the economy in constructive ways. As an ex-president Carter has shaped an unusually constructive role for himself. Working from the Carter Center in Atlanta, he has led a campaign to eradicate the Guinea worm disease and river blindness, monitored elections in Third World nations, and mediated international crises. His efforts were critical to the successful resolution of U.S. conflicts with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea ( 1994 ) and Haiti ( 1994 ). He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002...

Carter, Jimmy

Carter, Jimmy (b. 1924)   Reference library

Betty Glad

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,145 words

...Party as the most likely to manage the economy in constructive ways. As a former president, Carter has shaped an unusually constructive role for himself. Working from the Carter Center in Atlanta, he has led a campaign to eradicate Guinea worm disease and river blindness, monitored elections in Third World nations, and mediated international crises. His efforts were critical to the successful resolution of US conflicts with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or North Korea ( 1994 ), and Haiti ( 1994 ). He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002 ...

Surveys and Their Use in Understanding African Public Opinion

Surveys and Their Use in Understanding African Public Opinion   Reference library

Jeffrey Conroy-Krutz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,130 words

...in relatively liberalized contexts. Media houses, academic institutions, and civil-society organizations interested in issues related to politics and governance commission the majority of public opinion surveys in Africa; foreign researchers and the Afrobarometer project also often require domestic affiliates. These entities only flourish in environments that provide them with the de jure and de facto ability to set their own research priorities. For example, the independent National Election Monitoring Unit released two surveys as Kenya prepared for its...

U.S. Foreign Policy

U.S. Foreign Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,571 words

...Communist ideology. This suggests again that Americans are not driven by an appetite for power; more probably they are stunned at the magnitude of their success, at the number of countries that are now formal democracies, at the frequency of overseas elections that need to be monitored for fairness, etc. Professional political scientists sometimes scoff at the idealism and optimism of this liberal interpretation of U.S. foreign policy. In fact, the most realist of analysts may share with typical citizens a great awareness of power. Americans have spent two...

Democracy Promotion in Africa

Democracy Promotion in Africa   Reference library

Oda van Cranenburgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on the effects of majoritarian electoral systems present in many African countries. However, election monitoring is also manipulated in various ways by governments unwilling to relinquish power through free and fair elections. In a comprehensive account of the evolution of international election monitoring, Kelley ( 2012 ) examined the numerous actors involved, the supply and demand factors fueling the growth of the industry, and the effect of monitoring on the quality of democracy. The positive effect on democracy is compromised because the acceptance of...

British Commonwealth

British Commonwealth   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,003 words

...was suspended from the Commonwealth's councils in response to a violent coup d'état and repeated violations of human rights. Those violations prompted the establishment of a Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group ( CMAG ), which included the Australian foreign minister, to monitor serious infringements of political democracy and non-compliance with international conventions on human rights ( see International human rights law ). Nigeria was restored to full membership following the restoration of civilian rule and elections in 1999 , while Pakistan's...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Craig N. Murphy

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,180 words

...(the head of the Secretariat) have successfully averted many violent conflicts by helping adversaries find ways to manage escalating tensions. Throughout the Cold War, and increasingly since then, the Security Council has established and maintained peacekeeping missions to monitor and observe peace processes in some areas where hostilities have ceased. This work has often been done in coordination with that of the UN specialized agency concerned with refugees, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, as well as with organizations providing...

The African Union: Successes and Failures

The African Union: Successes and Failures   Reference library

Thomas Kwasi Tieku

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,506 words

...such speed that they usually lack the in-depth analysis and sober reflections associated with good academic work. It is therefore common to encounter factual errors, hasty generalizations, and opportunistic assertions when reading materials on the AU. 2 Moreover, many of the AU-related publications are security-centric. They are written by people within the security consultancy system or by academics whose interests are related to security. Of the over 123 academic writings related to the AU compiled by major databases such as the Social Sciences Abstracts,...

Ministerial staff

Ministerial staff   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,111 words

...increasingly mediated through ministerial staff, and ministers tending to rely on staff located in the ministerial wing. Responding to technological and other developments in the mass media, Labor pursued a more strategic and professional approach to media management and monitoring. Though an irritation to oppositions, media units of the kind developed under Labor have become an institutionalised and indispensable feature of contemporary Australian politics. The Howard government has continued the trend to large, active, and interventionist ministerial...

Auditor‐general

Auditor‐general   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,128 words

... in Queensland, a state that has supposedly undergone institutional renewal following the Fitzgerald Inquiry, executive government interference with the activities of the auditor‐general was clearly evident. After the Queensland auditor‐general agreed to an opposition request to monitor and report on certain aspects of government spending, he was publicly called to a meeting with the premier and the director‐general of the Department of the Premier and Cabinet ( DP&C ) to discuss the matter. At the same time, the premier announced there would be a review of...

1989

1989   Reference library

David Ost

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,461 words

...sponsored not by the United States but, as 1989 justice would have it, by Poles and other Eastern Europeans who had organized their own underground movement against communism. In a chain line of human-rights activism, Poles helped train Slovaks, who used tools, such as election monitoring, against their own illiberal nationalist government, and both helped train young Serbs in their campaign against Slobodan Milosevic as well as Ukrainians fighting against their own post-Soviet authoritarianism, in what came to be known as the “color revolutions” ( Bunce and...

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism   Reference library

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...constituencies but also a communal logic around candidate selection for legislative races ( Koter, 2016 , p. 134). Geographically targeted brokerage, where traditional leaders mobilize constituents from villages, enables parties to monitor at the group level, which is less costly and requires less capacity than monitoring individual-level votes. Social Media as a Tool to Combat Incumbency Advantage. The explosion of cell phone and Internet access in Africa over the last 15 years provides opposition candidates with a cost-effective tool to engage with...

China

China   Reference library

William A. Joseph

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,345 words

...The extent of overt Party interference in economic, academic, cultural, and other nonpolitical matters has been reduced significantly in recent decades, but little of importance is decided by mayors, university presidents, or other responsible authorities without the concurrence of the ubiquitous party secretary. Nevertheless, the growth of private business and the spread of information technology (especially social media) have weakened—but by no means broken—the capacity of the regime to control and monitor the lives of its citizens. In this and other ways,...

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