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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Palmer Drought Severity Index

Palmer Drought Severity Index   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,226 words
Illustration(s):
2

...original PDSI. It also reports extreme dry and wet events with frequency of occurrences more in line with rare events. With the advent of the U.S. Drought Monitor (drought.unl.edu/dm) ( Svoboda et al., 2002 ) in 1999 , PALMER DROUGHT SEVERITY INDEX. Figure 2. Status of drought severity in the United States on 1 July 1934 . (Data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) the North American Drought Monitor ( Lawrimore et al., 2002 ) shortly thereafter, and the National Integrated Drought Information System and its Web portal (“U.S. Drought Portal”) in 2006...

Snow Cover

Snow Cover   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...take months to melt and are thus important sources of summer water for many arid regions. Monitoring the extent, depth, and water resources contained in the snow cover is done using a variety of tools. Because snow is white with a high albedo, it is easy to differentiate snow-covered from snow-free land using satellites. The hemispheric extent of the snow cover has been tracked this way since 1967 and provides an important record of climate. Snow cover depth is monitored at thousands of weather stations. These data are used with reanalysis models to produce...

Satellite Observation

Satellite Observation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Calif.: Academic, 1995. King, Michael D. , et al., eds. Our Changing Planet: The View from Space . Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Rao, P. K. , et al., eds. Weather Satellites: Systems, Data, and Environmental Applications . Boston: American Meteorological Society, 1990. Schmidt, G. , and J. Wolfe . Climate Change: Picturing the Science. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009. Liou, K.N. An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation , 2d edition. International Geophysics Series, Volume 84. San Diego: Academic Press, 2002....

Estuaries

Estuaries   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...volume. ——, ed. Estuarine Research , vols. 1 and 2. New York: Academic Press, 1975. Day, J. W., Jr. , et al. Estuarine Ecology . New York: Wiley, 1989. A comprehensive synthesis that serves as a text and standard reference. Kennedy, V. S. , ed. Estuarine Perspectives . New York: Academic Press, 1980. Kennish, M. J. Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution . Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1997. A recent, comprehensive review of problems of pollution and programs for monitoring and controlling them. Lauff, G. H. , ed. Estuaries . Washington,...

Estuaries

Estuaries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...E. , ed. Estuarine Research . 2 vols. New York and London: Academic Press, 1975. Day, J. W., Jr. , et al. Estuarine Ecology . New York: Wiley, 1989. A comprehensive synthesis that serves as a text and standard reference. Kennedy, V. S. , ed. Estuarine Perspectives . New York and London: Academic Press, 1980. Kennish, M. J. Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution . Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1997. A recent, comprehensive review of problems of pollution and programs for monitoring and controlling them. Lauff, G. H. , ed. Estuaries ....

Ionosphere

Ionosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,086 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Electrical Engineers, 1989. Rishbeth, H. , and O. K. Garriott . Introduction to Ionospheric Physics . New York: Academic, 1969. Schunk, R. W. “The Terrestrial Ionosphere.” In Solar Terrestrial Physics: Principles and Theoretical Foundations , edited by R. L. Carovillano and J. M. Forbes , pp. 609–676. Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel; Hingham, Mass.: Sold and distributed in the United States and Canada by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1983. Stewart, B. “ Hypothetical Views Regarding the Connection between the State of the Sun and Terrestrial...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...depleted, or decreasing populations. Second, make the population decrease. This usually applies to populations that are judged to be too high or those that are increasing too rapidly. Third, exploit the population by harvesting it for a sustained, continuing yield. Fourth, monitor it but do not seek to manipulate it. The first three options imply manipulative management, which involves changing the population level of the species involved, either through direct methods, such as hunting, or indirectly by changing the habitat, for example through provision...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...applies to small, depleted, or decreasing populations. Second, make the population decrease. This usually applies to populations that are judged to be too high or increasing too rapidly. Third, exploit the population by harvesting it for a sustained, continuing yield. Fourth, monitor it but do not seek to manipulate it. The first three options imply manipulative management, which involves changing the population level of the species involved, either through direct methods, such as hunting, or indirectly by changing the habitat, for example, through provision...

Security and Environment

Security and Environment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...has extended far beyond an academic debate. Warren Christopher , former U.S. Secretary of State, has explicitly linked the two, noting that “. . . natural resource issues (are) frequently critical to achieving political and economic stability. . . .” Former Norwegian Defense Minister Johan Holst was even more explicit when he noted that “environmental degradation may be viewed as a contribution to armed conflict in the sense of exacerbating conflicts or adding new dimensions.” Whether the discussions have been among academics or in public-policy circles,...

Security And Environment

Security And Environment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...security has extended far beyond an academic debate. Warren Christopher , former U.S. Secretary of State, has explicitly linked the two, noting that “natural resource issues [are] frequently critical to achieving political and economic stability.” Former Norwegian Defense Minister Johan Jørgen Holst was even more explicit when he noted that “environmental degradation may be viewed as a contribution to armed conflict in the sense of exacerbating conflicts or adding new dimensions.” Some confusion still exists among academics and in public-policy circles over...

Icebergs

Icebergs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...drift speed southward varies from 20 to 40 kilometers per day, and the larger icebergs, which survive melt and breakup, may reach farther south than 45° north latitude, where they pose a hazard to shipping. On rare occasions, ice has survived as far south as Bermuda. Iceberg monitoring for the purposes of reducing collisions with shipping is conducted by the International Ice Patrol, overseen by the U.S. Coast Guard. This organization has maintained iceberg surveillance south of 48° north latitude since 1913 , following the sinking of the SS Titanic by...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,084 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and vulnerabilities to periods of climate stress. Adaptive responses for changes in climate will thus need to include ways to reduce risks associated with change including improved climate monitoring, data acquisition, and information sharing. Simple Early Warning Systems, based on climate and food estimates, may now have to be expanded to include creative ways of monitoring a range of other risk factors coupled to climate change and variability including improved and accessible information on childhood nutrition, social welfare status in communities,...

Coastlines

Coastlines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Cultural Systems of Coastlines . London and New York: Academic Press, 1988. An extensive and informative survey of coastal processes and management. Davis, R. A. The Evolving Coast . New York: Scientific American Library, 1994. A readable briefing on coastlines and coastal change. Morton, R. A. “ Temporal and Spatial Variations in Shoreline Changes and Their Implications, Examples from the Texas Gulf Coast. ” Journal of Sedimentary Research 49 (1979), 1101–1111. Morton, R. A. , et al. “ Monitoring Beach Changes Using GPS Surveying Techniques. ” Journal...

Longwave Radiation

Longwave Radiation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Liou, K-N. , An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation , Amsterdam and Boston.: Elsevier Academic, 2002. Peixoto, J. P. , and A. H. Oort . Physics of Climate . New York: American Institute of Physics, 1992. Ramanathan, V. , B. R. Barkstrom , and E. F. Harrison . “ Climate and the Earth's Radiation Budget .” Physics Today 42 (1989): 22–32. Wallace, J. M. , and P. V. Hobbs . Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey . 2d ed. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier Academic, 2006. V....

Drought

Drought   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...drought); and it provides a useful means of monitoring trends in the spatial dimensions of a developing drought. [ See Palmer Drought Severity Index .] However, no single definition of drought fits all circumstances, and no single index is appropriate for all circumstances. The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the U.S. Department of Commerce, together with other federal, local, and academic agencies and institutes, issue weekly updates of the Drought Monitor, a mapped synthesis of multiple indices and...

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...encouraged agencies to acknowledge potential environmental impacts to the public, and that it encouraged decision makers to think about potential environmental impacts before committing resources. The major weaknesses of NEPA included inadequate strategic planning, inadequate monitoring and adaptive environmental management, and the need to address cumulative impacts more effectively (Canter and Clark, 1997; Council on Environmental Quality, 1997). Importantly, many of the above issues surrounding NEPA in the United States also apply to EIA in other...

Snow

Snow   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...weather creates strong temperature gradients across the snow pack, the burial of surface layers without good bonding to adjacent layers, and the formation of wind slabs, produce weak layers that are known to lead to avalanche initiation. [ See Avalanches .] More comprehensive monitoring of surface weather conditions, and numerical modeling of snow metamorphism has improved prediction ability, yet the subtlety of some of the weak layer formation processes still elude successful prediction. Lastly, in cold regions, the bulk of atmospheric pollutants enter the...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...since the 1960s, have become available for monitoring Earth's vital signs. [See Global Monitoring ; and Remote Sensing .] The latest in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Observing System (EOS), a satellite called Terra , was launched in December 1999 to join three others in the EOS series. Terra will measure solar energy, winds, productivity of oceans, forest cutting and burning, ice and snow cover, greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols. Other satellites monitor storms and aid in weather prediction; still...

Coastlines

Coastlines   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Systems of Coastlines . London: Academic Press, 1988. An extensive and informative survey of coastal processes and management. Davis, R. A. The Evolving Coast . New York: Scientific American Library, 1994. A readable briefing on coastlines and coastal change. Morton, R. A. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Shoreline Changes and Their Implications: Examples from the Texas Gulf Coast . Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 49 (1979), 1101–1112. Morton, R. A. , M. P. Leach , J. G. Perine , and M. A. Cardoza . Monitoring Beach Changes Using G.P.S....

North Sea

North Sea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,366 words
Illustration(s):
3

...been oiled (Bourne, 1976). Despite these continuing losses, seabird populations in the North Sea have increased steadily, as discussed above. Fisheries Since the resumption of fishing after World War II, the North Sea has been subjected to great fishing pressure. The fishing is monitored and regulated, and catch quotas are agreed upon each year, depending on the strength of recruitment to the fish stocks, but these quotas are often exceeded, and the intensity of fishing pressure has been responsible for a serious decline of some fish stocks. In the 1960s,...

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