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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Despres, Emile

Despres, Emile (1909–73)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
502 words

...in 1930 . He did not pursue graduate work in economics, but went to New York City to join the district Federal Reserve Bank. What Emile Despres lacked in postgraduate academic credentials he more than made up for in sheer intellectual brilliance. In the midst of an era of frantic capital movements and competitive devaluations, Despres created a mechanism capable of monitoring them. An early convert to Keynesianism, Despres warned that the old rules of classical economics no longer applied. In September, 1931 Britain abandoned the gold standard,...

Pollard, Sidney

Pollard, Sidney (1925–98)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,728 words

...then enrolled on the school’s PhD programme and studied the British shipbuilding industry between 1870 and 1914 , under the supervision of T.S. ashton and H.L. beales . Pollard married his first wife, Eileen Andrews, in 1949 . For all his academic success, Pollard at first had difficulty in securing an academic appointment. He taught for the London Services committee and at Westminster College, Oxford. In 1950 he was appointed to the first Knoop fellowship at the University of Sheffield. Here he concentrated on labour history; his research was later...

Kemmerer, Edwin Walter

Kemmerer, Edwin Walter (1875–1945)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,213 words

...loans on better terms. Foreign investors felt more confident in a ‘kemmererized’ country. An independent central bank preserving the gold standard supposedly prohibited financial profligacy. A balanced budget promised to assure the government's ability to repay debts. Fiscal monitoring seemed to guarantee responsible use of foreign funds, mainly for productive public works. During and after his house calls, Kemmerer steered clear of most of the international loan transactions and counseled against excessive indebtedness. But his employers frequently had less...

Stock Markets

Stock Markets   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,581 words

...an analytical focus for estimating the future contours of railroad finance both in Europe and the United States. Prominent members of the rising new profession of economics increasingly wrote about various aspects of railroad economics and governance. Periodicals appeared that monitored developments in railroad operations and finance. The appearance of extensive governmental statistical series further informed investors about railroad economic performance and potential. In the United States, for example, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) launched its ...

Cyert, Richard Michael

Cyert, Richard Michael (1921–98)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,915 words

...management thought, Cyert was a relatively traditional economist. He described his goals as an academic administrator as being to improve the quality of the university and to develop a strategy for doing so with a balanced budget. He advocated the application of economic analysis and decision theory to problems of firms and universities. And he recommended the application of conventional economic notions of marginal analysis, comparative advantage and the monitoring of behavior and performance measures. Although Cyert as a manager was an economist and thus...

Central Banking

Central Banking   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,118 words
Illustration(s):
1

...threat of penalty to be effective. If there is a case for supervision, as against regulation, it must be that there is some use in collecting information. Thus, the supervisory body could ask for different types of information according to changing circumstances. It could then monitor particular developments in the markets. But based on this scenario, the supervisor would be toothless. In the end, would this add to anything that banks would do on their own? Regulation suggests backup: something can be done about any errant member of the regulated group. This usually...

Accounting and Bookkeeping

Accounting and Bookkeeping   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,193 words
Illustration(s):
1

...numerals simplified calculations made cumbersome under the Roman numbering systems. The facilitation of mathematical calculation afforded by this new system of numbers represented a significant contribution to accounting method. Accounts were kept because merchants needed to monitor subordinates, acting as their agents, and to settle concluded joint-partner ventures. The use of systematic accounting procedures also helped Charlemagne to manage his estate, in the ninth century in pre-Norman England. He issued an ordinance containing elaborate instructions for...

The Economics of Early Interventions Aimed at Child Development

The Economics of Early Interventions Aimed at Child Development   Reference library

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
21,080 words

...structural quality. Examples of minimum quality standards to improve process quality include requesting that childcare centers follow an established curriculum and that they record when different activities take place. However, it is very difficult to monitor the quality of these, while it is very easy to monitor staff-children ratios and other structural quality inputs. Some minimum quality requirements on structural quality might be complements of process quality. For instance, it might be less costly for better-trained teachers to engage in developmentally...

Quality in Nursing Homes

Quality in Nursing Homes   Reference library

Matteo Lippi Bruni, Irene Mammi, and Rossella Verzulli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,689 words

...is labor intensive, and the use of advanced technologies and robotics is still in its infancy. Moreover, most potential applications pertain to the development of technological aids and supports aimed at facilitating home care (e.g., devices for communication and home health monitoring, physical aids, etc.). Their diffusion will presumably favor the choice of assisting the elderly dependent patients at their domicile, thus postponing NH admission. However, the lack of familiarity of elderly people with information technology (IT) has hindered a generalized...

Chemical Industries

Chemical Industries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,982 words
Illustration(s):
3

...up a laboratory reaction to an industrial process are substantial, an entire academic discipline of chemical engineering designed to master these technological challenges has developed since the late nineteenth century. Professor Adolf von Baeyer (1835–1917) synthesized indigo in 1880 , winning in 1905 the Nobel Prize in chemistry for this work. Nevertheless, it took seventeen years of research and development that involved intensive collaboration among many academic and firm chemists before BASF had a commercially viable process. Without...

The Economics of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

The Economics of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity   Reference library

Nathan Tefft

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,564 words

...maternal employment, on a variety of child outcomes, including childhood overweight and obesity. Parental employment can affect obesity through a variety of channels because employment uses time resources to generate labor income. If time spent preparing healthy food and monitoring food consumption, encouraging physical activity, or otherwise organizing the household to promote health is used instead to earn income, child health and obesity may worsen ( Cawley & Liu, 2012 ; Courtemanche, 2009 ; Fertig, Glomm, & Tchernis, 2009 ; Fiese, Hammons, &...

Health Industry

Health Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,197 words
Illustration(s):
5

...have relied on their own senses and patients' own account of their diseases, in the diagnosis of medical conditions. From the early nineteenth century on, however, a range of increasingly sophisticated mechanical aids began to be incorporated into the business of diagnosing and monitoring disease processes. The first important such instrument was the stethoscope, developed by French chest physician Rene Laennec in 1816 , which enabled the physician to listen to sounds of the heart and the lungs, including the fetal heart. Other similar technologies followed,...

Changes in Hospital Financing and Organization and Their Impact on Hospital Performance

Changes in Hospital Financing and Organization and Their Impact on Hospital Performance   Reference library

Jonas Schreyögg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,580 words

...with which to distinguish between hospital responses at the intensive margin (e.g., upcoding) versus the extensive margin (e.g., increase in admissions). Although this stream of research is related only indirectly to hospital performance, it underscores how important it is to monitor how hospitals respond to changes within existing DRG-based payments systems and whether, and to what extent, such systems have unintended effects. In summary, several studies have investigated how the introduction of DRG-based hospital payments may have affected efficiency in...

Feudalism

Feudalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...given up their free status and become serfs, dependent on the lord.) What particularly defines such dependent peasant tenancies as “feudal,” however, is the particular form of jurisdiction that they accorded to the lord of the manor. Free and unfree tenancies were made and monitored in the manor court, the private court of the lord, which dispensed customary law under the authority not of some higher public authority but of the lord himself. The seigneurial authority thus asserted and tested by the lord in his own court came to be seen as the most...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,074 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to set the pollution tax correctly and to detect the amount of effluent being generated by individual polluters; so the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, at the behest of economists, tried a different regulatory strategy. The regulators believed that they could establish, monitor, and enforce quantitative limits for particular pollutants in particular regions of the country. In a system first proposed in 1990 and implemented in 1994 , the EPA determined the total amount of tonnage of sulfur dioxide that it would allow to be emitted throughout the...

Health Status Measurement

Health Status Measurement   Reference library

John Mullahy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,197 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the answer to such a question figures prominently in policy discussions regarding global warming. Yet there is clearly no single temperature that fully characterizes the entirety of the planet. Instead, the temperature data measured at over 1,200 globally dispersed climate-monitoring stations are (after seasonal and other adjustments) summarized into a single metric that is proposed to represent our entire planet’s temperature (see https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/ ). Why is the data summary used to define “Earth’s temperature” chosen? For many policy,...

Competition and Quality in Healthcare

Competition and Quality in Healthcare   Reference library

Peter Sivey and Yijuan Chen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,335 words
Illustration(s):
9

...more valuable and induces the providers to compete for them by raising quality. As Gravelle ( 1999 ) pointed out, this result implies that the regulated payment is an effective instrument for the regulator to control quality even if quality is not observable by her. Without monitoring the quality level of individual providers, the regulator can achieve the outcome of an unregulated private market to induce optimal quality by setting the regulated payment equal to the private market equilibrium fee. Imperfect Information about Quality and Switching Costs. In...

The Economics of Cognitive Aging

The Economics of Cognitive Aging   Reference library

Fabrizio Mazzonna and Franco Peracchi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,593 words
Illustration(s):
10

...a natural experiment. Labour Economics , 17 (1), 240–247. Ngandu, T. , Lehtisalo, J. , Solomon, A. , Levälahti, E. , Ahtiluoto, S. , Antikainen, R. , … Kivipelto, M. (2015). A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): A randomised controlled trial. Lancet , 385 (9984), 2255–2263. Nishimura, Y. , Oikawa, M. , & Motegi, H. (2017). What explains the differences in the effects of retirement on health? Evidence from...

National Income Accounts

National Income Accounts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
18,694 words
Illustration(s):
3

...In Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences , vol. 11. New York, 1933. Kuznets, Simon . Capital in the American Economy . Princeton, 1961. Lindahl, E. , E. Dahlgren , and K. Kock . National Income of Sweden, 1861–1930 , vol. 3. Stockholm and London, 1937. Maddison, Angus . Monitoring the World Economy, 1820–1992 . Paris, 1995. Maddison, Angus . The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective . Paris, 2001. Marczweski, J. Histoire quantitative—Buts et méthodes . Cahiers de l'ISEA . Paris, July 1961. Ohkawa, Kazushi, M. Shinohara, and M. Umemura, eds. ...

The Economics of Diet and Obesity: Public Policy

The Economics of Diet and Obesity: Public Policy   Reference library

Fabrice Etilé

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
16,002 words

...A. M. , & Kain, J. (2015). Smart food policies for obesity prevention. Lancet , 385 (9985), 2410–2421. Herman, C. P. , & Polivy, J. (2005). Normative influences on food intake. Physiology & Behavior , 86 (5), 762–772. Herman, C. P. , & Polivy, J. , (2014). Models, monitoring, and the mind: Comments on Wansink and Chandon’s “Slim by Design.” Journal of Consumer Psychology , 24 (3), 432–437. Herrnstein, R. J. , Loewenstein, G. F. , Prelec, D. , & Vaughan, W. , Jr. (1993). Utility maximization and melioration: Internalities in individual choice....

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