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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Braverman, Harry

Braverman, Harry (1922–76)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,927 words

...business and management acumen. He subsequently moved to Monthly Review Press as a return to socialist publishing, and it was here that he wrote his major work. Braverman was never an academic as such. Indeed, he disliked what he saw as ‘ivory tower’ academics and those whom he labelled as not grounded in the world of work, although ironically, many academic careers were subsequently made on the bandwagon his book set in motion and the publications it engendered. Crucially, the views and themes in his famous book were driven by his particular...

Cyert, Richard Michael

Cyert, Richard Michael (1921–98)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
1,597 words

...management thought, Cyert was a relatively traditional economist. He described his goals as an academic administrator as being to improve the quality of the university and to develop a strategy for doing so with a balanced budget. He advocated the application of economic analysis and decision theory to problems of firms and universities; and he recommended the application of conventional economic notions of marginal analysis, comparative advantage and the monitoring of behaviour and performance measures. Although Cyert was an economist and thus, as a manager,...

Mooney, James David

Mooney, James David (1884–1957)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,461 words

... Emerson . In such a system, the organization is divided between the ‘line’ functional departments involved in production, supply, marketing and so on, and the staff, a corps of generalists usually found near the top of the organization who engage in planning, analysis, monitoring and coordination activities. Line management is about achieving targets; staff management is about deciding what the targets are to be and setting them. But Mooney does not fall into the trap common to other writers of the period in thinking that the staff in some way governs...

Porter, Michael E.

Porter, Michael E. (1947)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,167 words

... (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations , New York: The Free Press. Porter, M. (1991) Strategy: Seeking and Securing Competitive Advantage , Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Porter, M. (1998) On Competition , Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Porter, M. and Monitor Company (1992) Canada at the Crossroads: The Reality of a New Competitive Environment , Ottawa: Business Council on National Issues and Minister of Supply and Services. Porter, M. , Caves, R. E. and Spence, A. M. (1980) Competition in the Open Economy , Cambridge, MA:...

buyer and buying behaviour

buyer and buying behaviour   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
3,113 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Technical Managers who might test and approve the product and who will be seeking quality and reliability; the Senior Executive who may approve major expenditure or choice of supplier; the Purchasing or Commercial Manager who negotiates terms, approves conditions of purchase and monitors supplier performance; the Legal Manager who draws up or approves legal contracts with the supplier; or the Finance Manager who approves expenditure and controls. Types of organizational buying • New task purchase when the organization is facing a need or a problem for the first...

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