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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

academic monitoring

academic monitoring   Quick reference

Isabella Wallace

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
186 words

... monitoring The process of observing students’ academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of his/her classmates and to identify students who are struggling, excelling, or underachieving. Information for examining students’ progress is usually collected in the form of test marks and teacher assessment levels or grades. These are often recorded on tracking sheets , or progress reports , which can then be issued to parents at intervals during the...

academic monitoring

academic monitoring  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of his/her ...
33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...atmosphere came to an end after the November Uprising of 1823 . In Warsaw, from 1801 the Society of the Friends of Science played an invaluable role in promoting academic publishing until its closure in 1831 . During the later 19 th century, without state support, the Polish School Society and the Mianowski Fund supported publishing both for schools and for research and academic communities. Influential private firms included the Glücksbergs for Polish history and literature, and the Arcts for textbooks, *music , *children’s book s, and, in the...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of *New South Wales ) in Sydney in 1826 . Independent newspapers were increasing in number, and were less vulnerable to government interference: Bent’s defiance had been squashed in 1825 ; but when Governor Darling imprisoned the proprietors of the Australian and the Monitor in 1829 , the newspapers both continued publishing. The mid- 1820s saw an upsurge of original poetry in Sydney and Hobart newspapers. The first magazine, Robert Howe’s Australian Magazine (Sydney, 1821 ), was soon followed by the first book of verse by an Australian-born...

academic board

academic board  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A committee of staff and managers in a university or college which meets regularly for the purpose of regulating and monitoring the academic affairs of the institution. Staff members are usually ...
tutor

tutor  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In schools, teachers responsible for supporting the work or welfare of a group of pupils may be designated a tutor, as in ‘form tutor’ and ‘year tutor’. In further and higher education a tutor is ...
learner-centred

learner-centred  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An approach to teaching and learning in which the learner, their interests, enthusiasms, and aspirations are taken as the starting point of the education process, and the learner is credited with ...
awarding body

awarding body  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An organization responsible for the conduct of assessment leading to recognized awards such as the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), Vocational Advanced Levels, and key skills ...
Bibliographies

Bibliographies   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,002 words

...and conflict studies produce similar reports. The yearbook of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe ( OSCE ) has been published annually since 1995 in English, German, and Russian. Written by academics and diplomats, it provides a report on the OSCE’s work in areas such as conflict prevention, human rights, and election monitoring. Historically there has been a wide range of print journals and indexes covering this field, such as the War & Society Newsletter and the Register of Current Research into European Integration , which ceased...

Journalism

Journalism   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,829 words

...time can be organized according to the relationship between journalism and stages in a conflict process: monitoring and awareness building of conflicts; analyzing conflict; facilitating dialogue about conflict resolution; and—underpinning all of these—building and sustaining a commitment to the peaceful resolution of conflict. For any peacemaking process to begin, it is necessary to be aware that there is a conflict that needs to be addressed. Monitoring conflicts and bringing them to public attention therefore constitute an important part of peace journalism....

Organization for Security and Co- operation in Europe

Organization for Security and Co- operation in Europe   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,464 words

...Helsinki . CORE, Centre for OSCE Research, Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg (IFSH), 2005. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. http://www.osce.org . Security and Human Rights (previously published as Helsinki Monitor ). [Academic journal with reports on developments in and related to the OSCE. Published by Brill, in cooperation with the Netherlands Helsinki Committee (NHC)]. Jeannie...

Amnesty International

Amnesty International   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,196 words

...( NGO ) founded in 1961 that has played a pioneering role in human-rights advocacy. AI—unlike operational NGOs that implement relief efforts in the field—relies on research, monitoring, lobbying, and advocacy campaigns to publicize and address human-rights violations worldwide. Amnesty International originally focused on freeing individual political prisoners and monitoring political rights, including freedom of expression. AI has expanded its advocacy over the years and in 2001 amended its charter to include implementation of economic, social, and...

Confidence-Building Measures

Confidence-Building Measures   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,518 words

...make an offer of a ceasefire and designate an international organization to oversee its implementation. The United Nations and other international organizations are often asked to monitor the implementation of peace agreements and ceasefires between states as a CBM. Third parties may also be called upon to act as short-term or long-term observers of disarmament efforts or to monitor military installations as part of a peace agreement. For example, in Northern Ireland, despite the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 , the issue of decommissioning of arms by the IRA...

Censorship and Repression of Peace Literature

Censorship and Repression of Peace Literature   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,174 words

...including the ability to scrutinize what a person reads or purchases. Freelance writer Eleanor Bader argued that the Patriot Act violated the right of Americans to freely express their opinions because the government could now monitor what library users read. Bader contended that this government policy/behavior of “monitoring” a citizenry discourages people from seeking information about a range of topics that the government designates a threat to national security. Other democratic countries censor, too. Germany, for example, prohibits writing that...

Landmines

Landmines   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,076 words

.... Harmon, Russell S ., J. Thomas Broach , and John H. Holloway Jr ., eds. Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets X . Washington, D.C.: SPIE, International Society for Optical Engineering, 2005. International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Landmine Monitor Report . New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004. Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. http://serac.jrc.it/ . King, Colin , ed. Jane’s Mines and Mine Clearance . 9th ed London: Jane’s Information Group, 2005. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the...

Gender and Violence

Gender and Violence   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,606 words

...as producers of legitimate lines of descent can also serve to make them targets of sexual violence in conflict. Combatants use sexual violence to disrupt lines of legitimacy and, thereby, to disrupt social relationships within the “enemy” community. With increased international monitoring of conflicts and peace negotiations, some combatant forces also report using sexual violence strategically, in lieu of killing, because they believe that these crimes will weigh less heavily against them in any eventual negotiations and reparations. Male roles and violence. In...

Training for Peacekeepers

Training for Peacekeepers   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,146 words

...already complex environment. Peacekeepers undertake a wide range of responsibilities in complex conflict situations, including promoting human security, assisting in demobilizing former fighters, supporting elections and power-sharing arrangements, training local police forces, monitoring human rights, and promoting economic and social development. Peacekeeping has changed significantly since “traditional peacekeeping” was first conceptualized by the United Nations ( UN ) in 1948 . Peacekeeping since the 1990s has seen great changes in the nature of violent...

Conflict Analysis

Conflict Analysis   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,522 words

...interventions rely as much on a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the intervening institutions as they do on the context in question. An organization may produce a quality conflict analysis report or process, but if the project design, implementation, and monitoring staff are not similarly conflict aware, then the report or process is likely to be of limited value. And if the organization’s senior management, human resources staff, and performance appraisal systems do not equally prioritize conflict transformation, then staff are unlikely...

Professionalism, Professionalization, and deprofessionalization in Journalism

Professionalism, Professionalization, and deprofessionalization in Journalism   Reference library

Jenny Wiik

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,479 words

...In many respects, it is obvious that journalists appear under completely different structural conditions in different parts of the world. The prerequisites for independent journalism, namely freedom of expression and press freedom, do not apply everywhere. According to the monitoring organization Freedom House ( 2018 ) , only 13% of the world’s population lives in countries where journalists’ security is guaranteed and the media are protected from government and political interventions and pressures. The Freedom House report showed that in 2018 global...

Eastern European Revolutions of 1989

Eastern European Revolutions of 1989   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,314 words

...social, cultural, and other rights and freedoms.” Critics of the regimes now had not only a legal basis for their work but also external moral and political support in the form of both Western governments and nongovernmental organizations (such as Human Rights Watch) that would monitor the regimes’ compliance (or lack thereof) with this section of the accords. In the same period, some independent activists in Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the GDR developed contacts with each other, both indirectly in the form of unofficial ( samizdat : self-published)...

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