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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

subliminal perception

subliminal perception   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,175 words
Illustration(s):
2

...suggest that, prior to awareness of a visual stimulus which is gradually increasing in brightness, the brain may analyse the latter's meaning and, as a result, modify its own level of arousal to hasten or retard awareness of the information that it carries. That the brain monitors and analyses subliminal stimuli receives support from many comparable investigations. Thus, emotional words, presented below threshold to the eye, have been found to change auditory sensitivity, and vice versa. By the same token, during binocular rivalry, in which the subject...

hunger and food intake regulation

hunger and food intake regulation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,240 words

...produces hormones which could affect the brain via the bloodstream, and it is also known that a large number of nerve fibres carry messages to the brain via the vagus and splanchnic nerves. But it has been found that sectioning of the vagus does not affect a rat's ability to monitor nutrients in the stomach: a rat with its vagus nerve cut still compensates accurately for any nutrient removed from the stomach during a meal. On the other hand, it no longer stops eating in response to overdistension of the stomach. So far we have spoken of hunger as if it was a...

hypnosis

hypnosis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,125 words

...hierarchical organization of cognitive control processes within the *brain . Recently *electroencephalographic ( EEG ) and fMRI findings have converged to show a breakdown in the flow of information (functional connectivity) amongst anterior cortical regions which implement monitoring and control functions as well as between anterior and central or posterior cortical regions. These findings support a breakdown in at least some aspects of executive control as a core feature of hypnosis; however, it is also possible that this very breakdown of higher‐level...

Metamemory and Cognitive Aging

Metamemory and Cognitive Aging   Reference library

Christopher Hertzog and Taylor Curley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
15,627 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Kausler, D. H. (1994). Learning and memory in normal aging . San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Kelley, C. M. , & Sahakyan, L. (2003). Memory, monitoring, and control in the attainment of memory accuracy . Journal of Memory & Language , 48 , 704–721. Koriat, A. (1995). Dissociating knowing and the feeling of knowing: Further evidence for the accessibility model . Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 124 , 311–333. Koriat, A. (1997). Monitoring one’s own knowledge during study: A cue-utilization approach to judgments of...

Technology Use by Older Adults

Technology Use by Older Adults   Reference library

Sara J. Czaja and Chin Chin Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
6,331 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Monitoring systems can also enhance the ability of long-distance caregivers or caregivers who work to check on the status of their loved one. Nearly 5 to 7 million caregivers in the United States are long-distance caregivers ( Family Caregiving Alliance, 2016 ). For example, wandering is a common problem among individuals who have Alzheimer’s disease. There are many devices available for preventing or detecting wandering, such as Project Lifesaver, Mindme, or GPS Smart Sole. Unobtrusive home monitoring systems, such as home sensors, can be used to monitor...

Burnout in Sport and Performance

Burnout in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Robert C. Eklund and J. D. DeFreese

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...athletes as a means of burnout monitoring, prevention, and, when warranted, treatment. Finally, longitudinal burnout monitoring efforts should be a feature of future research and, in particular, monitoring that includes biometric assessments. The previously mentioned foundational, longitudinal work has shed some light on the development of burnout in athlete samples, but research gaps remain in our understanding of variables moderating and mediating its progression. These gaps may start to be addressed via systematic monitoring during athletes’ intensive...

Anxiety and Fear in Sport and Performance

Anxiety and Fear in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Shuge Zhang, Tim Woodman, and Ross Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...& Jones, 1996 ). Another skill-focused perspective stems from Baumeister’s ( 1984 ) seminal work on testing the effect of explicit monitoring, the explicit monitoring hypothesis (EMH; Beilock & Carr, 2001 ). Similar to the CPH, the EMH proposes that when performers experience anxiety, they tend to monitor their performance throughout task execution in an attempt to ensure excellent performance; such monitoring disrupts well-established routines and makes performance vulnerable. To test the EMH, Beilock and Carr trained a sample of novice golfers to...

Ethical Considerations in Sport and Performance Psychology

Ethical Considerations in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Edward F. Etzel and Leigh A. Skvarla

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...and professionals to monitor their competencies and maintain their self-awareness of ethics applications in their respective training programs and careers. To take a page from ACA’s playbook, professionals could be regularly required to fulfill a specific number of hours of ethics training in order to renew their license or certification. For example, in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, continuing education in ethics is not currently required for those with the CC-AASP designation or renewal. In addition, instructors, academic advisors, and professional...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ultimately communicating these clearly to all stakeholders, including the general public. Other SADC countries have professional organizations that monitor developments in physical education generally, but not yet specifically for sport psychology. The Botswana Association of Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (BAPHERD), for example, was established in 1994 in an effort to promote and monitor physical education research, programs, and policies in the country. Zimbabwe, Namibia, Mozambique, Angola, and Madagascar have formed similar...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America   Reference library

Vincent J. Granito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...a professional sports environment ( Green, 2003 ). Griffith’s work with Cubs ended in 1940 because of his decision to take an academic administration position at Illinois. Influential Individuals and Their Work: The Contemporaries Research on sport, exercise, and performance psychology blossomed after the 1960s and involved a much greater connection between first, second, and third generations of members in the field from academic programs that started in the 1940s and 1950s. There has also been greater diversity of experiences in the post-Griffith era,...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the early 1980s, two distinct groups undertook sport psychology practice in elite sport in Australia. A very small number of Australian academics had studied motor learning and basic sport psychology in North America. After returning to Australia, these individuals collected psychological profile data from some sporting teams (predominantly Australian Rules football players). Prominent among this group was a cluster of academics based at the University of Western Australia (UWA) that included Denis Glencross, Gerry Jones, and Geoff Watson. This group was very...

Strength Training and Sport Psychology

Strength Training and Sport Psychology   Reference library

E. Whitney G. Moore

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...used across the six elite SCCs. First, coaches’ silent monitoring of their athletes during training averaged 22% of their behaviors (range: 14–35%). Second, management of the training sessions averaged 14% of the coaches’ behaviors (range: 6–35%). Third, the coaches’ verbally motivating the athletes to hustle (i.e., give high or more effort) averaged 11% of their behaviors (range: 4–21%). Taken together, these coaches spent approximately half of their training sessions managing, silently monitoring, and motivating their athletes. These SCCs’ most frequent behaviors...

Aging and Cognitive Skill Learning

Aging and Cognitive Skill Learning   Reference library

Jack Kuhns and Dayna R. Touron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
9,540 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Mouton. Dunlosky, J. , Hertzog, C. , & Powell-Moman, A. (2005). The contribution of mediator-based deficiencies to age differences in associative learning. Developmental Psychology , 41 , 389–400. Dunlosky, J. , Kubat-Silman, A. K. , & Hertzog, C. (2003). Training monitoring skills improves older adults’ self-paced associative learning. Psychology and Aging , 18 , 340–345. Elo, A. E. (1965). Age changes in master chess performances. Journal of Gerontology , 20 , 289–299. Ericsson, K. A. (2013). Exceptional memory and expert performance: From...

Daily Diary Designs in Lifespan Developmental Psychology

Daily Diary Designs in Lifespan Developmental Psychology   Reference library

Shevaun D. Neupert and Jennifer A. Bellingtier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
15,033 words

...but CF participants failed more attention-check questions and did not reproduce known effects replicated on mTurk and other platforms ( Peer, Brandimarte, Samat, & Acquisti, 2017 ). Prolific Academic. Prolific Academic provides demographic screening and ensures high data quality so researchers can rapidly recruit target participants. Prolific Academic offers reliable, on-demand participants anytime for a survey or task and researchers can check new data before approving participant rewards. However, the stated current participant pool is over 25,000,...

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Gershon Tenenbaum and Edson Filho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,421 words
Illustration(s):
5

...to position monitoring hardware (e.g., GPS and accelerometers) and software (i.e., sport performance video analysis). Position monitoring analysis allows researchers and practitioners to identify tactical patterns adopted by players, including the relative spread and direction in the field space of actions in interactive team sports. Recently, multi-subject monitoring of peripheral and central physiological responses has been conducted to monitor team processes and performance (see Filho, Bertollo, Robazza, & Comani, 2015 ). In monitoring multisubjects,...

Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate as a Biomarker for Stress and Aging Research

Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate as a Biomarker for Stress and Aging Research   Reference library

Carolyn M. Aldwin and Ritwik Nath

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
5,396 words
Illustration(s):
1

...an indicator for a wide variety of acute and chronic illnesses ( Saadeh, 1998 ). While CRP is often a more precise biomarker and references acute illnesses better, ESR is particularly useful (and better than CRP) for indicating low-grade bone and joint infections, as well as monitoring autoimmune disorders such as lupus ( Harrison, 2015 ), and for generally reflecting longer term inflammatory processes (see Tennant, 2014 ). We separate our review into acute and chronic illnesses. Acute Illnesses. While ESR does increase in many acute illnesses, CRP and its...

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Jedediah E. Blanton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...situations. A total of 23 interventions across 19 published studies met the inclusion criteria and were categorized into three intervention categories: relaxation techniques (e.g., visuomotor behavior rehearsal and imagery); behavioral techniques (e.g., reinforcement, self-monitoring, feedback); and cognitive restructuring techniques (e.g., systematic desensitization and stress inoculation). Vealey ( 1994 ) has examined the status of the sport-psychology intervention research published since Greenspan and Feltz’s review. Using the same inclusion criteria,...

Everyday Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker Method in Lifespan Developmental Methodology

Everyday Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker Method in Lifespan Developmental Methodology   Reference library

Christiane A. Hoppmann, Theresa Pauly, Victoria I. Michalowski, and Urs M. Nater

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
10,849 words
Illustration(s):
5

...diurnal profiles have been associated with poorer verbal fluency in older adults with memory complaints ( Fiocco, Wan, Weekes, Pim, & Lupien, 2006 ). Key challenges that any lifespan research using repeated daily life assessments needs to overcome are reactivity (self-monitoring-induced changes in responding) and training effects (practice-based performance improvements). This particularly applies to research involving everyday cognitive testing. Further concerns arise when there is a discordance in the timescale on which stress-related and cognitive...

Alcohol Abuse and Drug Use in Sport and Performance

Alcohol Abuse and Drug Use in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Matthew P. Martens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of motivational interviewing interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 79 , 433–440. Johnston, L. D. , O’Malley, P. M. , Bachman, J. , Schulenberg, J. E. , & Miech, R. A. (2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume 2, College students and adults ages 19–55 . Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Kingsland, M. , Wolfenden, L. , Tindall, J. , Rowland, B. C. , Lecathelinais, C. , Gillham, K...

Moderation in Lifespan Developmental Analyses

Moderation in Lifespan Developmental Analyses   Reference library

Johnson Ching Hong Li and Virginia Man Chung Tze

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
8,264 words
Illustration(s):
3

...outcomes for students. The alternative assessment relied on frequent, ongoing direct observations and measures by teachers monitoring students’ learning progress and meaningful outcomes ( Deno, 1987 ). This assessment provided useful diagnostic information regarding students’ abilities that were directly related to the classroom curriculum across different subject areas. One advantage of this approach is its relevance to the academic component of the response to intervention (RTI), an educational approach that focuses on providing early intervention and...

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